204. Dhammānudhammapaṭipanna (Dhamma? + Anudhamma?)?

“දසබලයන්වහන්සේ නමැති ශෛලමය පර්වතයෙන් පැන නැඟී, අමා මහ නිවන නම් වූ මහා සාගරය අවසන් කොට ඇති, ආර්ය අෂ්ටාංගික මාර්ගය නම් වූ සිහිල් දිය දහරින් හෙබි, උතුම් ශ්‍රීමුඛ බුද්ධවචන ගංගාවෝ, ලෝ සතුන්ගේ සසර දුක් නිවාලමින්, බොහෝ කල් ගලා බස්නා සේක්වා!”
❤❤❤ ❤❤❤ ❤❤❤ ❤❤❤ ❤❤❤

||| Inspired and Donated by (Ven.) Bhante Randombe Suneetha | Sinhala / සිංහල.

Q-1. I kindly request you to explain the term Dhammānudhammapaṭipanna (Dhamma + Anudhamma) according to different Sutras, Commentaries, and Dictionaries.

I quote - "[One] Who practices the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma." - (Dhammanudhammapatipanna - Mahaparinibbana Sutta). What is the difference between these two “Dhammas”?

Q-2. Acording to Dīghanikāyaṭṭhakathā - Sumaṅgalavilāsinī (the Digha Nikaya Aṭṭhakathā - The Commentary on the "Collection of Long Discourses") The term “Dhamma” describes as “Nine Supermundane States” (Nava-Lokuttara-Dhamma) and “Anudhamma” as Thirty-Seven Requisites of Enlightenment or The Thirty-seven factors of enlightenment (Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma).

Is it correct realizing (the same point mentioned above in Q-1.) Dhamma + Anudhamma as that “Having gained both the ‘Analytical knowledge of the true meaning (attha-patisambhidā), and ‘Analytical knowledge of the law (dhamma-patisambhidā), (+) practice in accordance with ‘Analytical knowledge of ready wit (patibhāna-patisambhidā)? 

A-2. (I beg your permission) Venerable Sir! I'm afraid to say, No, you are wrong there – Please Read This/Next One to know about ‘Four kinds of Analytical knowledge' , 'Discrimination', or The Four Kinds of Analytical Knowledge (Paṭisambhidā-ñāṇa).

A-1. It should be, (correction of The Quotation,) "[One] Who practices with a view to attaining the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma.

# Then, (when considering the following points,) The former (Dhamma) is The Nine Supra Mundane (Super-Mundane) (Navalokuttara) Dhamma and The latter (Dhamma = AnuDhamma) is Every Right Practice till 'Maturity-Moment' (Gotrabhū-citta) leading to Nibbana [including Dana-Sila-(Samata-Vipassana)Bhavana / Alms-giving-Moral Practice-(Tranquility-Insight)-Meditation, etc.], sometimes Vipassana only though.

{“This bhikkhu's way of arrival [Spk-pt: the preliminary practice (Pubbabhagapatipada) that is the cause for arrival at the noble path].”

"lit. 'who has entered the lineage (of the Noble Ones)', i.e. the Matured One.

https://www.dhammawiki.com/index.php/Gotrabhu
http://www.palikanon.com/english/wtb/g_m/gotrabhuu.htm}

Suttas.

N.B. (Remember) We added with a view to attaining

# “For a monk practicing with a view to attaining the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhammawhat accords with the Dhamma is this: that he keep cultivating disenchantment with regard to form, ...

“For a monk practicing with a view to attaining the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma, what accords with the Dhamma is this: that he keep focused on inconstancy with regard to form, ...

“For a monk practicing with a view to attaining the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma, what accords with the Dhamma is this: that he keep focused on stress with regard to form, ...

“For a monk practicing with a view to attaining the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma, what accords with the Dhamma is this: that he keep focused on not-self with regard to form, ...

[The Original Text: "For a monk practicing the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma, what accords with the Dhamma is this: that he keep cultivating disenchantment with regard to form, that he keep cultivating disenchantment with regard to feeling, that he keep cultivating disenchantment with regard to perception, that he keep cultivating disenchantment with regard to fabrications, that he keep cultivating disenchantment with regard to consciousness. As he keeps cultivating disenchantment with regard to form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness, he comprehends form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness. As he comprehends form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness, he is totally released from form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness. He is totally released from sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, & despairs. He is totally released, I tell you, from suffering & stress."]



Commentaries.

Note - 1: The Atthasālinī (Commentary on Dhammasaṅgaṇī) summarizes different meanings of the word Dhamma: The Scriptures (pariyatti); Cause, condition, reason, root-condition (hetu); Virtue, quality (guna); Soulless, 'I'-less (selfless/Not-self / egoless / person-less), Being-less (animal-less / creature-less) [nissatta]; Lifeless (nijjīva), etc.

"dhammasaddo panāyaṃ pariyattihetuguṇanissattanijjīvatādīsu dissati."

# The practitioners of the Dhamma who follow the Dhamma means They who follow Insight Meditation according to The Noble Doctrine which taught by The Buddha The greatest that leads to Nibbāna the final bliss.

"dhammānudhammapaṭipannāti ariyadhammassa anudhammabhūtaṃ vipassanādhammaṃ paṭipannā."

# There, the practitioner of the Dhamma who follows the Dhamma means One who follows Every Right Practice till One of the four Supermundane paths or Arahatta-magga (the path to Emancipation) as a pre-part(s) of The Nine Supramundane States – All These religious practices can be one-worded as Pubbabhāgapaṭipadā (the former part practice / the previous practice / the preliminary or preparatory practice / the mundane preliminary portion of the path).

"tattha dhammānudhammappaṭipannoti navavidhassa lokuttaradhammassa anudhammaṃ pubbabhāgapaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno ¶. Sāyeva pana paṭipadā anucchavikattā “Sāmīcī”ti vuccati. Taṃ sāmīciṃ paṭipannoti sāmīcippaṭipanno. tameva pubbabhāgapaṭipadāsaṅkhātaṃ anudhammaṃ carati pūretīti anudhammacārī."

"pubbabhāgapaṭipadāti ca sīlaṃ ācārapaññatti dhutaṅgasamādānaṃ yāva gotrabhuto sammāpaṭipadā veditabbā."

"paṭipanno hotīti ettha sīlato paṭṭhāya yāva arahattamaggā paṭipannoti veditabbo. dhammānudhammappaṭipannoti lokuttarassa nibbānadhammassa anudhammabhūtaṃ paṭipadaṃ paṭipanno. anudhammabhūtanti anurūpasabhāvabhūtaṃ."

A few examples for different meanings in different contexts.

# Considering ‘Dhammassānudhammanti’, in this Sutta, Dhammo means the path to emancipation (arahatta-magga) and Anudhamma means the rest of three (3) supermundane paths (ariya-maggas*) and (the rest of three - 3) supermundane fruits (ariya-phalas), they were obtained successively.

[*"ariya-magga, m. (sa. ārya + mārga), the sublime path (ɔ: sotâpatti-magga .... arahatta-magga), but generally = ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo = The Noble EightFold Path."]

"dhammassānudhammanti imasmiṃ sutte dhammo nāma arahattamaggo, anudhammo nāma heṭṭhimā tayo maggā tīṇi ca sāmaññaphalāni, tāni paṭipāṭiyā paṭilabhīti attho."

# If we take Dhammassa Cānudhamman, here Dhammo means Omniscience, and Anudhamma means Declaration to the public.

"dhammassa cānudhammanti idha sabbaññutaññāṇaṃ dhammo nāma, mahājanassa byākaraṇaṃ anudhammo nāma."

# When we take Dhammassa Cānudhammaṃ Byākarontīti, here Dhammo refers to The speech which was once/already spoken of, and Anudhammo means The listener was restated.

"dhammassa cānudhammaṃ byākarontīti ettha dhammo nāma kathitakathā, anudhammo nāma kathitassa paṭikathanaṃ."

Dictionaries.

ND (Nyanatiloka Buddhist) - Dhamma: lit. the 'bearer', constitution (or nature of a thing), norm, law (jus), doctrine; justice, righteousness; quality; thing, object of mind (s. āyatana) 'phenomenon'. In all these meanings the word 'dhamma' is to be met with in the texts. The Com. to D. instances 4 applications of this term guṇa (quality, virtue), desanā (instruction), pariyatti (text), nijjīvatā (soullessness, e.g. "all dhammā, phenomena, are impersonal," etc.). The Com. to Dhs. has hetu (condition) instead of desanā. Thus, the analytical knowledge of the law (s. paṭisambhidā) is explained in Vis.M. XIV. and in Vibh. as hetumhi ñāṇa, knowledge of the conditions.

The Dhamma, as the liberating law discovered and proclaimed by the Buddha, is summed up in the 4 Noble Truths (s. sacca). It forms one of the 3 Gems (ti-ratana, q.v.) and one of the 10 recollections (anussati q.v.).

Dhamma, as object of mind (dhammāyatana, s. āyatana) may be anything past, present or future, corporeal or mental, conditioned or not (cf. saṅkhāra, 4), real or imaginary.

dhamma-cakka: The 'Wheel (realm) of the Law', is a name for the doctrine 'set rolling' (established) by the Buddha, i.e. the 4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.).

"The Perfect One, o monks, the Holy One, fully Enlightened One, in the Deer Park at Isipatana near Benares, has set rolling (established) the unsurpassed Wheel (realm) of the Law" (M. 141). Cf. cakka.

PN (Proper Names) - Dhamma:

1. Dhamma.-The Bodhisatta, born as a devaputta in the Kāmāvacara-world.

See the Dhamma Jātaka. In the Milindapañha (p.212) he is called a yakkha.

2. Dhamma.-The palace built by Vissakamma for Mahāsudassana, by order of Sakka. D.ii.180ff.

3. Dhamma.-The lake in front of the palace mentioned above. D.ii.184.

BU (Buddhadatta) Concise - Dhamma: (m.) doctrine; nature; truth; the Norm; morality; good conduct.

PTS (Pāli Text Society) - Anudhamma: [anu + dhamma] 1. in compn. with dhamma as dhammânudhamma to be judged as a redupl. cpd after the manner of cpds. mentioned under anu iv. meaning "the Law in all its parts, the dhamma and what belongs to it, the Law in its fullness". For instances see dhamma C. iv. Freq. in phrase dh˚ -- ânudh˚ -- paṭipanna "one who masters the completeness of the Dh.", e. g. S ii.18; iii.163; It 81; Ps ii.189. -- 2. conformity or accordance with the Law, lawfulness, relation, essence, consistency truth; in phrase dhammassa (c˚) anudhammaṁ vyākaroti to explain the truth of the Dh. Vin i.234; D i.161; M i.368, 482; S ii.33; iii.6; iv.51; v.7. See further M iii.30; Sn 963 (cp. Nd1 481 for exegesis) Also in cpd. ˚cārin living according to the Dhamma living in truth S ii.81, 108; A ii.8; Dh 20 (cp. DhA i.158); Vv 317; Sn 69 (see Nd2 51).

CR (Critical PD - Critical Pāli Dictionary) - Anudhamma: anu-dhamma, m. [a secondary noun, cf. anu- loma, adhicitta, abhidhamma, etc.], (a) (right) method (as hypostasis of anu-dhammaṁ [yathânudh°, dham- mânudh°] ind.): dhammânudhammaṁ paṭipannassa ayam ~o hoti veyyākaraṇāya, It 81,13 (= anu- cchavika-sabhāvo paṭirūpa-sabhāvo, It-a); SN III anu-dhammavassa . . . ayam ~o hoti veyyākaraṇāya . . ., MN III 30,8 (= sabhāvo, Ps; cf. dhammassa cânudham- maṁ vyākaronti, Vin I 234,19); sāvakassa . . . satthu sāsane pariyogāya [Ps Se °gayha] vattato ayam ~o hoti . . ., MN I 480,32 (= sabhāvo, Ps); — pl. katame bodhiyā ~ā, Nidd I 481,31 (explaining yathâ- nudhammaṁ, Sn 963), see akatânudhamma. — (β), a minor dhamma (abstracted from dhammânudham- maṁ, cf. anukhuddaka), Ps III 366,6 ad MN II 146,15, quoted under anudhammaṁ, ind.). — Title of four suttas, SN III 40—41. — Ifc. v. akatânudhamma.

BU (Buddhadatta Concise) - Anudhamma: (m.) conformity with the Law.

Note - 2: Sometimes, Dhamma is called to/for Merit - puñña/kusala, Meritorious deed - puñña/kusala, or Kammically wholesome action - puñña/kusala. Sometimes, all/only things/states Conditioned (saṅkhatā dhammā) are called Dhamma.

"dhammoti dānādipuññadhammo."
"sabbe dhammāti sabbe saṅkhatā dhammā."

# Dhamma also carries out the meaning of Maintaining, Bearing, Sustaining, and Keeping up etc.

"... dhāraṇaṭṭhena dhammoti ..."

||| Brief and Essential Translation of This.
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From Here on, Source:  (Ven. / Dr.) Bhante Randombe Suneetha Thera's Thesis.

"Chapter 4

 

On the Concept of Dhammānudhamma in the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta

 

4.1. Introduction

 

The Mahāparinibbānasutta (MPS 3-7 and MPS 5-3) describes the Buddha’s idea about the Anudhamma (Dhammānudhamma) concept with the Māra at the Cāpāla shine at Vesālı̄ city and Sāla grove of the Upavattana near Kusinārā city with Ven. Ānanda where the Māra (the Evil One) appealed to the Buddha to attain Parinibbāna (= Death after the last life-span of an Arahant) as soon as possible, the Buddha told to the Māra that until my disciples have a good understanding of the Dhamma (dhammānudhamma = dhamma + anudhamma), I would not attain Parinibbāna; and the Buddha came with Ven. Ānanda to the Sāla grove of the Malla at Upavattana on the banks across the Hiraññavatı̄ river near Kusinārā for His Parinibbāna. There, the gods held various flowers and trumpets to pay homage to the Buddha. Then the Buddha tells Ven. Ānanda, such offerings are not the way to respect the Buddha. The proper veneration to the Buddha is, the four groups of disciples (Sāvakas) or the four-fold community (monks-nuns-laymen-laywomen) to live and behave according to the Dhamma in the proper way, and that is the greatest sacrifice made to the Buddha. With these conversations between Māra and Ven. Ānanda; the Buddha gives an idea of the concept (Anudhamma - Dhammānudhamma). The purpose of this paper is to comment or clarify on the concept (Anudhamma - Dhammānudhamma) which is mentioned in Mahāparinibbānasutta and in accordance with other Suttas such as Candūpamasutta (SN II:197), Janavasabhasutta (DN II: 18), Pāsādikasutta DN (III: 117) Cūlasaccakasutta (MN I: 227) Anudhammasuttas (SN III 40/41:), Dhammapada and Commentaries thereon by Ven. Buddhaghosa (5th cent).

 

4.2. The Outline of Anudhamma (Dhammānudhamma) in MPS

 

The Mahāparinibbānasutta (MPS 3-7 and 5-3) describes the Buddha’s discourse about Anudhamma (Dhammānudhamma) concept as follows:

“Atha kho māro pāpimā acirapakkante āyasmante ānande yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṃ ṭhito kho māro pāpimā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “Parinibbātudāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato. Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā – ‘Na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me bhikkhū na sāvakā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānī  karissanti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desessantī’ti.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab2-129-ro

“Then, not long after Ven. Ānanda had left, Sinful Māra the Bad One went up to the Blessed One and stood at one side. Standing thus at one side, sinful Māra the bad one said this to the Blessed One: Venerable Sir, may the Blessed One now attain Parinibbāna! May the Sugata now attain Parinibbāna! Now is the time for the Blessed One’s Parinibbāna! For, Venerable Sir, these are the words spoken by the Blessed One: ‘Sinful Bad One, I shall not enter Parinibbāna unless my monk disciples are accomplished, trained, skilled, learned, bearers of the Dhamma; trained in accordance with the Dhamma, correctly trained and walking the path of the Dhamma, who will pass on what they have gained from their own teacher, teach it, declare it, establish it, expound it, analyze it, make it clear; until they shall be able, by reasonable means of the Dhamma, after to until they shall teach Dhamma refuting completely others teaching of Dhamma when it is arisen. And teach the Dhamma in all its wonderful away."*1

 

The Buddha came together with a large order of monks and Ven. Ānanda to the Sāla grove of the Malla at Upavattana on the banks across the Hiraññavatı̄ River, near Kusinārā, for His Parinibbāna. There the Buddha felt dizzy, So at the behest of the Buddha, Ven. Ānanda prepared a couch there, the Buddha rested his head on the north, rested his left foot on his right foot, and laid down on the right side like a lion mindfully. There, the gods held various flowers and trumpets to pay homage to the Buddha. Then the Buddha tells Ven. Ānanda, there that Ven. Ānanda, such offerings are not the way to Honour, respect, worship the Buddha. The proper veneration to the Buddha, monk, nun, layman, and laywoman is to live according to the supernatural Dhamma, to live and behave according to the Dhamma; that is in the proper way, and that is the greatest sacrifice made to the Buddha. Furthermore, The Buddha refers to Ven. Ānanda Dhammānudhamma in the following way in the same sutta:

 

MPS 5–3 (DN II 138. 16–24):

“Na kho, ānanda, ettāvatā tathāgato sakkato vā hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, ānanda, bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti māneti pūjeti apaciyati , paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātihānanda, dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārinoti. Evañhi vo, ānanda, sikkhitabban.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab2-254-ro

 

[Footnote - *1: Professor Thomas William Rhys Davids ­– Dialogues of the Buddha - Translated from the Pali of the Dīgha Nikāya, Volume II, Page 112, and Para 7.]: “Now not long after the venerable Ānanda had been gone. Māra, the Evil One, approached the Exalted One and stood beside him. And so standing there, he addressed the Exalted One in these words:- ‘pass away now, Lord; let the Exalted One now die, Now is the time for the Exalted One to pass away – even according to the word which the Exalted One spoke when He said:- “I shall not die, O Evil One! Until the brethren and sisters of the Order, and until the lay-disciples of either sex shall have become true hearers, wise and well-trained, ready and learned, carrying the doctrinal books in their memory, masters of the lesser corollaries that follow from the larger doctrine, correct in life, walking according to the precepts-until they, having thus themselves learned the doctrine, shall be able to tell others of it, preach it, make it known, establish it, open it, minutely explain it and make it clear-until they, when others start vain doctrine easy to be refuted by the truth, shall be able in refuting it, to spread the wonder-working truth abroad!”]

 

“But, Ānanda, this is not the way to honor, respect, revere, worship, or esteem the Tathāgata. Ānanda, whatever monk, nun, layman, or laywoman practices the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma, properly practicing, living in accordance with the Dhamma, he honors the Tathāgata, respects him, reveres him, worships him with the supreme worship. Therefore, Ānanda, consider thus: “We will practice the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma, properly practicing, dwelling in accordance with the Dhamma!" this is how you should train yourself."*2

 

In accordance with Devids’ translation, “… masters of the lesser corollaries that follow from the larger doctrine; all the greater and the lesser duties, who is correct in life, walking according to the precepts …”

 

Now, let us elaborate on this Anudhamma (Dhammānudhamma) concept with the facts in the commentary of Ven. Buddhaghosasa. Ven. Buddhaghosa's commentary on the Dīgha nikāya, called Sumangalavilāsinı̄, on these two passages runs as follows:

 

[Footnote - *2: Davids [150. 28–39]: “Now it is not thus, Ānanda, that the Tathāgata is rightly honored, reverenced, venerated, held sacred, or revered. But the brother or the sister, the devout man or the devout woman, who continually fulfills all the greater and the lesser duties, who is correct in life, walking according to the precepts–it is he who rightly honors, reverences, venerates, holds sacred, and reveres the Thathāgata with the worthiest homage. Therefore, O Ānanda, be ye constant in the fulfillment of the greater and of the lesser duties, and be ye correct in life, walking according to the precepts; and thus Ānanda, should it be taught.”]

 

4.3. Buddhaghosa’s Interpretation

 

MPSV on MPS [556. 10–13]:

dhammānudhammapaṭipannāti ariyadhammassa anudhammabhūtaṃ vipassanādhammaṃ paṭipannā. sāmīcippaṭipannāti anucchavikapaṭipadaṃ paṭipannā. anudhammacārinoti anudhammacaraṇasīlā.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=fb2-145-ro

“In this context, the latter is meant. Those who practice a Dhamma consistent with the Dhamma (dhammānudhamma-patipannā): Those who practice the teachings of Insight (Vipassana)*3, which is consistent with the teaching of the noble (ariyadhammassa). Those who practice correctly: those who practice the appropriate course. Those who behave according to the teaching (anudhammacārino): those whose moral habits conform to Dhamma". (Yang Gyu An)

 

Furthermore, Buddhaghosa describes the following points:

MPSV on MPS [578. 20–44]:

“Tattha dhammānudhammappaṭipannoti navavidhassa lokuttaradhammassa anudhammaṃ pubbabhāgapaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno. Sāyeva pana paṭipadā anucchavikattā “Sāmīcī”ti vuccati. Taṃ sāmīciṃ paṭipannoti sāmīcippaṭipanno. tameva pubbabhāgapaṭipadāsaṅkhātaṃ anudhammaṃ carati pūretīti anudhammacārī. pubbabhāgapaṭipadāti ca sīlaṃ ācārapaññatti dhutaṅgasamādānaṃ yāva gotrabhuto sammāpaṭipadā veditabbā. Tasmā yo bhikkhu chasu agāravesu patiṭṭhāya paññattiṃ atikkamati, anesanāya jīvikaṃ kappeti, ayaṃ na dhammānudhammappaṭipanno. Yo pana sabbaṃ attano paññattaṃ sikkhāpadaṃ jinavelaṃ jinamariyādaṃ jinakāḷasuttaṃ aṇumattampi na vītikkamati, ayaṃ dhammānudhammappaṭipanno nāma. Bhikkhuniyāpi eseva nayo. Yo upāsako pañca verāni dasa akusalakammapathe samādāya vattati appeti, ayaṃ na dhammānudhammappaṭipanno. Yo pana tīsu saraṇesu, pañcasupi sīlesu, dasasu sīlesu paripūrakārī hoti, māsassa aṭṭha uposathe karoti, dānaṃ deti, gandhapūjaṃ mālāpūjaṃ karoti, mātaraṃ pitaraṃ upaṭṭhāti, dhammike samaṇabrāhmaṇe upaṭṭhāti, ayaṃ dhammānudhammappaṭipanno nāma. Upāsikāyapi eseva nayo. paramāya pūjāyāti uttamāya pūjāya. Ayañhi nirāmisapūjā nāma sakkoti mama sāsanaṃ sandhāretuṃ. Yāva hi imā catasso parisā maṃ imāya pūjessanti, tāva mama sāsanaṃ majjhe nabhassa puṇṇacando viya virocissatīti dasseti.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=fb2-249-ro

 

[Footnote - *3: Vipassana (Insight) meditation is known to be the oldest of Buddhist meditation practice: This method of meditation comes directly from Satipatthānasutta (MN I: 55), (Foundation of Mindfulness). Vipassana is a codified system of training one’s mind and entails a set of exercises that is dedicated towards making one more and more aware of his or her life experiences. The objective of this form of meditation is to learn to see the “truth of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, and selflessness of phenomena. Vipassana is a gentle-yet-thorough technique of meditation. It is an observation-based, self-exploratory journey that focuses on the deep interconnection between the mind and body, which is realised through disciplined attention to the physical sensations.]

 

“In the text, practicing in accordance with Dhamma entering upon the path of the prior stage (Pubbabhāgapaṭipadā)*4, which is the prior Dhamma (anudhamma) of the nine-fold transcendental Dhamma. It is the path that is called “Right", because it is suitable. The right entering: entering upon that right path. Anudhamma–behaving: one carries out and behaves in the prior Dhamma (anudhamma) which is reckoned as the path of the prior stage.

The path of the prior stage should be understood as moral conduct by undertaking good behaviour, specific precepts, and ascetic practice, right up to the correct conduct of a member of the lineage (Gotrabhū)*5 [https://www.wisdomlib.org/definition/gotrabhu]. Therefore, if a monk violates his precepts by committing six disrespects, which have been taught in the Seven Factors of Awakening (One group of Satta Aparihāniyā Dhammā) of 1st chapter in MPS, and maintains his livelihood improperly, he does not enter the path of conduct in accordance with Dhamma. But if a monk does not violate his rules of training in the least degree, the Jina’s (Jina = the Buddha) limit (velā), the Jina’s boundary, and the Jina’s measuring–thread (outta), he is said to practice in accordance with Dhamma. The same applies to Nuns, if a Layman practices the five forms of hostility and the ten bad deeds, he does not practice in accordance with Dhamma. But if a Layman takes refuge in the Three Jewels, and fulfills the five rules and the ten rules of morality; if he observes the eight Uposathas a month; if he makes donations; if he makes offerings of perfumes and garlands*6; if he supports his mother and father; if he supports righteous Ascetics and Brahmans; then he is said to practice in accordance with Dhamma. The same thing is true of a Laywoman.

With the highest veneration; with supreme veneration. This is called immaterial veneration (Nirāmisapūjā); it can sustain my teaching. He shows that as long as these four assemblies will venerate him with this veneration, so long will his teaching shine like the full moon in the middle of the sky."*7 (Yang–Gyu An)

[Footnote - *4: Pubba-bhāga (prior stage) is “the initial stage of some particular further stage" (Gethin 1992, p. 332). With regard to the arising of the Lokuttara Path, it might be taken to indicate either a momentary stage passed through immediately prior to the arising of Lokuttara Consciousness, or a more enduring stage that nevertheless corresponds in level more or less to the momentary stage. In other words, if one’s point of reference is the Lokuttara Path–Knowledge, then the pubba–bhāga is Samantha and Vipassanā that either immediately precedes its arising, or approximates and is close to it in character (Gethin 1992, p. 334). (Footnote: Yang–Gyu An)]

[Footnote - *5.: PED defines it as “become of the lineage”; a technical term used from the end of the Nikāya period to designate one, whether layman or bhikkhu, who, as converted, was no longer of the worldlings (puthujjanā), but of the Ariyas, having Nibbāna as his aim.” In Vism (pp.137f.), the term designates an elder person. For an article on this term see Ruegg, pp. 199–207 footnote: Yang–Gyu An.]

[Footnote - *6: Buddhaghosa’s inclusion of offerings in this list is somewhat confusing. These practices as material forms of worship are criticized by the Buddha in the passage on which He comments. He might understand that the objection to material worship in MPS applies exclusively to monks and nuns, not to laypeople. Dhammapāla (a Sri Lankan monk-commentator) also is of the same opinion that for laypeople only material worship is suitable, but for monks, such worship is not suitable (SV–pt. II 228, 10.). But in MPS the Buddha’s admonition not to practice material worship applies to all Buddhists. The Buddha must have predicted the danger and the meaninglessness of all rituals. Footnote: Yang–Gyu An)]

[Footnote - *7: The moon parable and the example of MahāKassapa are quoted by Budhaghosa in his Visuddhimagga as exemplifying the true renunciant who follows the ascetic practice of the “house-to-house seek-er" (Sapadānacārikaṅgaṃ). [On the 13 ascetic practices (dhutaṅga)] Here he quotes two untraced verses (or he might have composed them himself) on such a monk:

“Candūpamo niccanavo kulesu,

Amaccharī sabbasamānukampo;

Kulūpakādīnavavippamutto,

Hotīdha bhikkhu sapadānacārī.

https://tipitaka.app/?a=pa2-67-ro

Loluppacārañca pahāya tasmā,

Okkhittacakkhu yugamattadassī;

Ākaṅkhamāno bhuvi sericāraṃ,

Careyya dhīro sapadānacāranti.”

Like the moon, ever a newcomer amongst families. Without envy, compassionate to all alike, free from the dangers of being dependent on houses, a monk is here a house-to-house alms-seeker.

As such, forsaking the self-indulgent conduct, he wanders about with eyes downcast a plough-length, without a wish, he freely roams the world, he would wisely live by the house-to-house alms. (Untraced: Vism 2.34/68)]

 

Here, Buddhaghosa makes it (anudhamma) clearly with his interpretation, that is proper practice Samatha and Vipassanā meditations, precepts and donation (Dana, Sı̄la, Bhāvanā) correctly (pubba–bhāga–patipadā) by monks, nuns, laywomen, laypeople. It leads us to become familiar with wise attention (yoniso–manasikāra). The practice of yonisomanasikāra results in maintaining a pure mind during all situations that are encountered, with the thirty-seven requisites of enlightenment (Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma), that is with navalokuttaradhamma, as well as the in accordance with Devids’ translation, that is state “…masters of the lesser corollaries that follow from the larger doctrine; all the greater and the lesser duties, who is correct in life, walking according to the precepts...”

Furthermore, there is another interpretation about anudhamma, (It is the larger doctrine according to Devids’ Note) (dhammānudhamma) in the Mahāparinibbānasutta. Now, we will examine that.

 

4.4. The Anudhamma (Dhammānudhamma) Concept in the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta

 

The Buddha discourse to the monk, what is Dhamma (anudhamma) that I have been taught up to now. That is stated in the third chapter of Mahāparinibbānasutta (MPS 3–50).

Seyyathidaṃ – cattāro satipaṭṭhānā cattāro sammappadhānā cattāro iddhipādā pañcindriyāni pañca balāni satta bojjhaṅgā ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. ime kho te, bhikkhave, dhammā mayā abhiññā desitā.” https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab2-181-ro

They are in the following way, as:

1. The 4 focuses of mindfulness, (MN 10)

2. The 4 right efforts, (AN 4.13, AN 14)

3. The 4 paths to spiritual power, (SN 51.15, SN 51.20)

4. The 5 spiritual faculties, (AN 4. 162, AN 4. 163)

5. The 5 spiritual powers, (AN 5.14)

6. The 7 limbs of awakening, (SN 46.5)

7. The noble eightfold path. (SN 45.8)

 

MPS 3–50 [119.22–32,120.1–11]

“Atha kho bhagavā yenupaṭṭhānasālā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – “Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, ye te mayā dhammā abhiññā desitā, te vo sādhukaṃ uggahetvā āsevitabbā bhāvetabbā bahulīkātabbā, yathayidaṃ brahmacariyaṃ addhaniyaṃ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṃ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ. Katame ca te, bhikkhave, dhammā mayā abhiññā desitā, ye vo sādhukaṃ uggahetvā āsevitabbā bhāvetabbā bahulīkātabbā, yathayidaṃ brahmacariyaṃ addhaniyaṃ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṃ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab2-181-ro

“Then the Buddha went to the hall of the gabled house. Having reached there, He sat down on the prepared seat. Thus seated down, the Blessed One addressed the monks: For this reason, Bhikkhus, whatever teachings that have been shown to you by me through supernormal knowledge, after having you learn them well, associate with them, cultivate them, develop them, so that the holy life will last long, so that it will stand long, for the welfare of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the good, welfare, and happiness of gods and humans!"

 

“Seyyathidaṃ – cattāro satipaṭṭhānā*8, cattāro sammappadhānā*9, cattāro iddhipādā*10, pañcindriyāni*11, pañca balāni*12, satta bojjhaṅgā*13, ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo*14. ime kho te, bhikkhave, dhammā mayā abhiññā desitā.” https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab2-181-ro

“Katame ca te, bhikkhave, dhammā mayā abhiññā desitā, ye vo sādhukaṃ uggahetvā āsevitabbā bhāvetabbā bahulīkātabbā, yathayidaṃ brahmacariyaṃ addhaniyaṃ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṃ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ.”*15

“Monks, I say to you that these teachings of which I have direct knowledge and which I have made known to you, these you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice, so that the life of purity may be established and may long endure, for the welfare and the happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the Benet, well-being, and the happiness of gods and men".

 

[Footnotes - *8-15:

*8 Satipaṭṭhānasutta (MN I: 55) Satipaṭṭhānā ­– The Four Foundations of Mindfulness:

1.         The contemplation of the body (kāyānupassanā),

2.         All feelings (vedanānupassanā),

3.         He further clearly perceives and understands any state of consciousness or mind (cittānupassanā),

4.         Concerning the mind–objects (dhammānupassanā).

*9 Sammappadhānā – The Four Right Efforts forming the 6th stage of the Eight-fold Path (sammā–vāyāmaSammāmagga) are: 1. The effort to avoid (saṃvara–padhāna), 2. To overcome (pahāna-padhāna), 3. To develop (bhāvanā–padhāna), 4. To maintain (anurakkhaṇa–padhāna), (1) The effort to avoid unwholesome (akusala) states, such as evil thoughts, etc. (2) To overcome unwholesome states(3) To develop wholesome (kusala) states, such as the seven elements of enlightenment (bojjhaṅga), (4) To maintain the wholesome states

The monk rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, unwholesome things not yet arisen … To overcome them … To develop wholesome things yet arisen … To maintain them and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth to maturity and to the perfection of development. And he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives.” – (Padhānasutta AN II 15).

(1) “What now, o monks, is the effort to avoid? Perceiving a form, or a sound, or an odour, or a taste, or a bodily or mental impression, the monk neither adheres to the whole nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome things might arise, such as greed and sorrow, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses. This is called the effort to avoid.”

(2) “What now is the effort to overcome? The monk does not retain any thought of sensual lust, or any other evil, unwholesome states that may have arisen; he abandons them, dispels them, destroys them, and causes them to disappear. This is called the effort to overcome.”

(3) “What now is the effort to develop? The monk develops the factors of enlightenment, bent on solitude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: mindfulness (sati), investigation of the law (dhamma-vicaya), energy (viriya), rapture (pīti), tranquillity (passaddhi), concentraton (samādhi), and equanimity (upekkhā). This is called the effort to develop.”

(4) “What now is the effort to maintain? The monk keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration, such as the mental image of a skeleton, a corpse infested by worms, a corpse blueblack in colour, a festering corpse, a corpse riddled with holes, a corpse swollen up. This is called the effort to maintain.” (Samvarappadhānasutta AN II 16).

 

*10 Iddhipāda (Vibhaṅga) Sutta (SN V 276) and Viraddhasutta (SN V 254) – The Four Bases of Success (Iddhipādā) Compounded with:

1.         Desire (chandiddhipāda),

2.         Energy (viriyiddhipāda),

3.         Inquisitiveness (cittiddhipāda),

4.         Wisdom (vimaṃsiddhipāda).

 

*11 Pañca Indriyā – Five Spiritual Faculties:

1.         Faith or conviction or belief (Saddhhā),

2.         Energy or persistence or perseverance (viriya),

3.         Mindfulness or memory (sati),

4.         Stillness of the mind (samādhi),

5.         Wisdom or understanding or comprehension (paññā).

 

*12 Pañca Bala ­– Five Strengths (Bala = power, strength, force).

Exegesis: Faith and Wisdom balance each other, as do Energy and Concentration. The Five Faculties are ‘controlling' faculties because they control or master their opposites. The faculties and powers are two aspects of the same thing.

1.         Faith/Conviction (saddhā bala) - controls doubt;

2.         Energy/Effort/Persistence (viriya bala) – controls laziness;

3.         Mindfulness (sati bala) - controls heedlessness;

4.         Concentration (samādhi bala) - controls distraction;

5.         Wisdom/Discernment (paññā bala) – controls ignorance.

 

*13 Satta Bojjhaṅgā – The Seven Factors of Enlightenment are:

1.         Mindfulness (sati) - To maintain awareness of reality, in particular the teachings (Dhamma).

2.         Investigation of the nature of reality (dhamma vicaya).

3.         Energy (viriya) also determination, effort.

4.         Joy or rapture (pīti).

5.         Relaxation or tranquility (passaddhi) of both body and mind.

6.         Concentration, (samādhi) a calm, one-pointed state of mind, or clear awareness.

7.         Equanimity (upekkha) - To accept reality as-it-is (yathā-bhuta) without craving or aversion.

 

*14 Ariyo Aṭṭhaṅgiko Maggo – The Noble Eightfold Path is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from Samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth.

The Eightfold Path consists of eight practices: right view, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right samadhi (‘meditative absorption or union’).

*15 Davids [1910:127. 20–41] Dialogues of the Buddha: Translated from the Pali of the Dīgha Nikāya, Volume 1-2 [Pages 127-128]

Then the Exalted One proceeded to the Service Hall and sat down there on the mat spread out for him. And when he was seated the Exalted One addressed the brethren and said:-

Therefore, O brethren-ye to whom the truths I have perceived have been made known by me – having thoroughly made yourselves masters of them, practice them, meditate upon them, and spread them abroad; in order that pure religion may last long and be perpetuated, in order that it may continue to be for the good and happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, to the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men!

‘Which then, O brethren, are the truths which, when I had perceived, I made known to you, which when you have mastered it behooves you to practice, meditate upon, and spread abroad, in order that pure religion may continue to be for the good and the world, to the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men?

[120] ‘They are these:

The four earnest meditations,

The fourfold great struggle against evil,

The four roads to saint ship,

The five moral powers,

The five organs of spiritual sense,

The seven kinds of wisdom, and

The Aryan eightfold path.

These, O brethren, are the truths which, when I had perceived, I made known to you, which when you have mastered it behoves you to practice, meditate upon, and spread abroad, in order that pure religion may last long and be perpetuated, in order that it may continue to be for the good and the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, to the good and the gain weal of gods and men!’]

 

Buddhaghosa describes this interpretation with the following points:

MPSV on MPS 3-50 [564.15–23]

“yathayidaṃ brahmacariyanti yathā idaṃ sikkhāttayasaṅgahaṃ sāsanabrahmacariyaṃ. addhaniyanti addhānakkhamaṃ. ciraṭṭhitikanti cirappavattivasena ciraṭṭhitikaṃ. cattāro satipaṭṭhānātiādi sabbaṃ lokiyalokuttaravaseneva kathitaṃ. Etesaṃ pana bodhipakkhiyānaṃ dhammānaṃ vinicchayo sabbākārena visuddhimagge paṭipadāñāṇadassanavisuddhiniddese vutto. Sesamettha uttānamevāti.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=fb2-186-ro

Namely, the holy life: this holy life in the teaching, consisting of the triad of training. Of a long period: enduring duration. Standing for a long time is said in the sense of operating for a long time. The four foundations of mindfulness (cattāro satipaṭṭhānā) and so forth. All is expounded as mundane and supramundane. The definitive view of these factors conducive to enlightenment is stated in every way in the Paṭipadāñāṇadassanavisuddhiniddesa of the Visuddhimagga. The rest of this is clear". (Yang-Gyu An: 2005:112.2–9)

 

Theravada Buddhist philosophy’s exposition of the supramundane involves drawing a distinction between the terms mundane (lokiya) and supramundane (lokuttara). The term mundane applies to all phenomena comprising the world (loka) form subtle states of consciousness as well as matter to virtue as well as evil, to meditative attainments as well as sensual engagements. The term supramundane, in contrast, applies exclusively to that which transcends the world, that is, the nine supramundane states: Nibbāna, the four noble paths (magga) leading to Nibbāna, and their corresponding fruits (phala) which experience the bliss of Nibbāna.

Lokiya means mundane, worldly, not only of this world but all experience and knowledge of any world, any existence, and represents all that is conditioned. Lokuttara means supramundane, beyond worldliness, and represents the unconditioned. The meaning of the word ‘supramundane’ is usually understood as being above the world. However, ‘above the world’ is often open to interpretation, as in the meaning of something not quite ordinary, like excellent virtue and discipline. For a better understanding of ‘supramundane’ it is better to look at the doctrines that are subsumed under supramundane (lokuttara) state (dhamma).

 

4.5. The Anudhamma (Dhammānudhamma) Concept in Other Suttas

 

This interpretation of Bhuddhaghosa’s Sumangalavilāsinı̄ is very interesting. It is evident that Bhuddhaghosa’s this interpretation derives partly from Candūpamasutta of in the Kassapasaṃyutta of Saṃyuttanikāya (SN II: 197); Pāsādikasutta of DN (III: 117) and Janavasabhasutta of DN (II: 200). Next, we examine Anudhamma (Dhammānudhamma) concept that appears in these Suttas in the following way:

 

4.5.1. The Anudhamma (Dhammānudhamma) Concept in the Candūpamasutta (SN II: 197)

 

The Candūpamasutta – discourse on the teaching of the Dhammas in accordance with Dhamma (dhammānudhamma) a term often used to describe the proper practice. Monastics are admonished not to socialize with families, but to be like the moon shining in the distance. And to follow the example of Mahākassapa. It’s sating in the following way (Candūpamasutta - SN II: 197):

“Candūpamā, bhikkhave, kulāni upasaṅkamatha – apakasseva kāyaṃ, apakassa cittaṃ, niccanavakā kulesu appagabbhā . Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso jarudapānaṃ vā olokeyya pabbatavisamaṃ vā nadīviduggaṃ vā – apakasseva kāyaṃ, apakassa cittaṃ; evameva kho, bhikkhave, candūpamā kulāni upasaṅkamatha – apakasseva kāyaṃ, apakassa cittaṃ, niccanavakā kulesu appagabbhā”.

“Kassapo, bhikkhave, candūpamo kulāni upasaṅkamati – apakasseva kāyaṃ, apakassa cittaṃ, niccanavako kulesu appagabbho. Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, kathaṃrūpo bhikkhu arahati kulāni upasaṅkamitu”nti? “Bhagavaṃmūlakā no, bhante, dhammā bhagavaṃnettikā bhagavaṃpaṭisaraṇā. Sādhu vata, bhante, bhagavantaṃyeva paṭibhātu etassa bhāsitassa attho. Bhagavato sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī”ti.

Atha kho bhagavā ākāse pāṇiṃ cālesi. “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ayaṃ ākāse pāṇi na sajjati na gayhati na bajjhati; evameva kho, bhikkhave, yassa kassaci bhikkhuno kulāni upasaṅkamato kulesu cittaṃ na sajjati na gayhati na bajjhati – ‘Labhantu lābhakāmā, puññakāmā karontu puññānī’ti; yathāsakena lābhena attamano hoti sumano, evaṃ paresaṃ lābhena attamano hoti sumano; evarūpo kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahati kulāni upasaṅkamituṃ.

“Kassapassa, bhikkhave, kulāni upasaṅkamato kulesu cittaṃ na sajjati na gayhati na bajjhati – ‘Labhantu lābhakāmā, puññakāmā karontu puññānī’ti; yathāsakena lābhena attamano hoti sumano; evaṃ paresaṃ lābhena attamano hoti sumano.

“Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, kathaṃrūpassa bhikkhuno aparisuddhā dhammadesanā hoti, kathaṃrūpassa bhikkhuno parisuddhā dhammadesanā hotī”ti? “Bhagavaṃmūlakā no, bhante, dhammā bhagavaṃnettikā bhagavaṃpaṭisaraṇā. Sādhu vata, bhante, bhagavantaṃyeva paṭibhātu etassa bhāsitassa attho. Bhagavato sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī”ti. “Tena hi, bhikkhave, suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasi karotha; bhāsissāmī”ti. “Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca –

“Yo hi koci, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃcitto paresaṃ dhammaṃ deseti – ‘Aho vata me dhammaṃ suṇeyyuṃ, sutvā ca pana dhammaṃ pasīdeyyuṃ, pasannā ca me pasannākāraṃ kareyyu’nti; evarūpassa kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno aparisuddhā dhammadesanā hoti.

“Yo ca kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃcitto paresaṃ dhammaṃ deseti – ‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhīti . Aho, vata me dhammaṃ suṇeyyuṃ, sutvā ca pana dhammaṃ ājāneyyuṃ, ājānitvā ca pana tathattāya paṭipajjeyyu’nti. Iti dhammasudhammataṃ paṭicca paresaṃ dhammaṃ deseti, kāruññaṃ paṭicca anuddayaṃ  paṭicca anukampaṃ upādāya paresaṃ dhammaṃ deseti. Evarūpassa kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno parisuddhā dhammadesanā hoti.

“Kassapo, bhikkhave, evaṃcitto paresaṃ dhammaṃ deseti – ‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhīti. Aho, vata me dhammaṃ suṇeyyuṃ, sutvā ca pana dhammaṃ ājāneyyuṃ, ājānitvā ca pana tathattāya paṭipajjeyyu’nti. Iti dhammasudhammataṃ paṭicca paresaṃ dhammaṃ deseti, kāruññaṃ paṭicca anuddayaṃ paṭicca anukampaṃ upādāya paresaṃ dhammaṃ deseti. Kassapena vā hi vo, bhikkhave, ovadissāmi yo vā panassa kassapasadiso, ovaditehi ca pana vo tathattāya paṭipajjitabban.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=cb4-16-ro

“Bhikkhus, you should approach families like the moon— drawing back the body and mind, always acting like newcomers, without impudence towards families. Just as a man looking down an old well, a precipice, or a steep riverbank would draw back the body and mind, so too, bhikkhus, should you approach families.

“Bhikkhus, Kassapa approaches families like the moon—drawing back the body and mind, always acting like a newcomer, without impudence towards families. What do you think, bhikkhus, what kind of bhikkhu is worthy to approach families?”

“Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Blessed One, guided by the Blessed One, take recourse in the Blessed One. It would be good if the Blessed One would clear up the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will remember it.”

Then the Blessed One waved his hand in space and said: “Bhikkhus, just as this hand does not get caught in space, is not held fast by it, is not bound by it, so when a bhikkhu approaches families his mind does not get caught, held fast, and bound amidst families, thinking: ‘May those desiring gains acquire gains, may those desiring merits make merits!’ He is as elated and happy over the gains of others as he is over his own gains. Such a bhikkhu is worthy to approach families.

“Bhikkhus, when Kassapa approaches families his mind does not get caught, held fast, or bound amidst families, thinking: ‘May those desiring gains acquire gains, may those desiring merits make merits!’ He is as elated and happy over the gains of others as he is over his own gains.

“What do you think, bhikkhus, how is a bhikkhu’s teaching of the Dhamma impure, and how is his teaching of the Dhamma pure?”

“Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Blessed One…”

“Then listen and attend closely, bhikkhus, I will speak.”

“Yes, venerable sir,” those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:

“A bhikkhu teaches the Dhamma to others with the thought: ‘Oh, may they listen to the Dhamma from me! Having listened, may they gain confidence in the Dhamma! Being confident, may they show their confidence to me!’ Such a bhikkhu’s teaching of the Dhamma is impure.

“But a bhikkhu teaches the Dhamma to others with the thought: ‘The Dhamma is well expounded by the Blessed One, directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise. Oh, may they listen to the Dhamma from me! Having listened, may they understand the Dhamma! Having understood, may they practise accordingly!’ Thus he teaches the Dhamma to others because of the intrinsic excellence of the Dhamma; he teaches the Dhamma to others from compassion and sympathy, out of tender concern. Such a bhikkhu’s teaching of the Dhamma is pure.

“Bhikkhus, Kassapa teaches the Dhamma to others with the thought: ‘The Dhamma is well expounded by the Blessed One…. Oh, may they listen to the Dhamma from me! Having listened, may they understand the Dhamma! Having understood, may they practise accordingly!’ He teaches the Dhamma to others because of the intrinsic excellence of the Dhamma; he teaches the Dhamma to others from compassion and sympathy, out of tender concern.

“Bhikkhus, I will exhort you by the example of Kassapa or one who is similar to Kassapa. Being exhorted, you should practise accordingly.”

https://suttacentral.net/sn16.3/en/bodhi

 

The Sutta’s teachings open with the words: Bhikshus, approach families like the moon, holding back (aphasia) the body, holding back the mind. He draws away, puts away, and removes. Here, this means figuratively that a monastic should keep a social and emotional distance from families, not to be attached to them in any way like the moon. Simply, it means that a monastic should be restrained in both body and mind, especially with approaching families. As such, it is clear, from both the Dhamma (such as the Sutta teachings here) and the Vinaya, that a monastic, by definition is a celibate renunciant who does not earn a living in any way. His task is the contemplative life, working for awakening in this life itself. If anyone who claims to be a monastic but, say, is gainfully employed in some form of business or receives some kind of remuneration, he would in fact be a layperson and should live accordingly. This is one clearly vital way of preventing the laicization of the Sangha or monastic order. That means Dhammānudhamma.

 

To live in truth: anudhammacārino; anudhamma = in conformity with the highest stage of vipassanā meditation leading to magga; carino = the habit of practicing. What is dhamma? What is anudhamma? Dhamma is the four paths and fruits and nibbāna, which are the nine supramundane states (lokuttara-dhammas). The anudhammas are the Thirty-seven dhammas that lead to enlightenment (Bodhi-pakkhiya-dhammas), i.e. leading to the four paths and fruits and nibbāna, when practiced.

The thirty-seven requisites of enlightenment or bodhipakkhikā dhammā in the Pali language and bodhipakṣa dharma in the Sanskrit language are the requisites or qualities (dhamma) related (pakkhiya) to awakening or enlightenment (bodhi) in Buddhism. In many of the discourses, the Buddha has referred to the significance of developing these 37 requisites to developing one’s mind and to attain liberation. For example, according to the Mahāparinibbānasutta of the Dı̄ghanikaāya, the collection of the Buddha’s long discourses, while addressing the monks before His passing away the Buddha has stated that:

“Seyyathidaṃ – cattāro satipaṭṭhānā cattāro sammappadhānā cattāro iddhipādā pañcindriyāni pañca balāni satta bojjhaṅgā ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. Ime kho te, bhikkhave, dhammā mayā abhiññā desitā, ye vo sādhukaṃ uggahetvā āsevitabbā bhāvetabbā bahulīkātabbā, yathayidaṃ brahmacariyaṃ addhaniyaṃ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṃ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab2-181-ro

“Now, O bhikkhus, I say to you that these teachings of which I have direct knowledge and which I have made known to you — these you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice, that the life of purity may be established and may long endure, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well-being, and happiness of gods and men.

And what, bhikkhus, are these teachings? They are the four foundations of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four constituents of psychic power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of enlightenment, and the Noble Eightfold Path*16. These, bhikkhus, are the teachings of which I have direct knowledge, which I have made known to you, and which you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice ...”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodhipakkhiy%C4%81dhamm%C4%81

[Footnote - *16: In the Pāsādikasutta of the Dı̄ghanikāya, (DN III: 117) as a means of avoiding any disagreement or dispute about the teaching and referring to these 37 requisites, the Buddha advised the disciples.]

 

“These 37 requisites of enlightenment are described in the following seven groups:

The Seven Groups

  1. Four foundations of mindfulness (satipatthana)
  2. Four types of right effort (sammappadana)
  3. Four bases of mental power (iddhipada)
  4. Five spiritual faculties (pancha indriya)
  5. Five spiritual powers (pancha bala)
  6. Seven factors of enlightenment (satta bojjhanga) and
  7. The Noble Eight-fold Path (ariya atthangika magga)

1. Four foundations of mindfulness (satipatthana)

1.1 Contemplation of the body (kayanupassana)

1.2 Contemplation of feelings (vedananupassana)

1.3 Contemplation of the mind (cittanupassana) and

1.4 Contemplation of mind objects (dhammanupassana)

In the Satipatthana sutta, before describing the four foundations of mindfulness and their practical aspects and referring to the benefits of practising them, Buddha stated that:

“ekāyano ayaṃ, bhikkhave, maggo sattānaṃ visuddhiyā, sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamāya dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya ñāyassa adhigamāya nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya, yadidaṃ cattāro satipaṭṭhānā.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab8-4-ro

“Bhikkhus, this is the one and the only way for the purification of beings, for overcoming sorrow and lamentation, for the cessation of physical and mental pain, for attainment of the Noble Paths, and for the realization of Nibbana. That is the four satipatthanas”.

1.1 Contemplation of the body (kayanupassana)

Contemplation of the body just as the body with no sense of mine, “I” or myself is to be practised under six sections or types of practice:

  1. Mindfulness on in and out breathing (anapana pabba)
  2. Mindfulness of the four postures – walking, standing, sitting and lying down: (iriyapatha pabba)
  3. Clear understanding of all activities (sampajanna pabba)
  4. Mindfulness of the 32 impurities of the body (paticulamanasika pabba)
  5. Mindfulness of the four elements – earth element, water element, heat element and air element (dhatumanasika pabba) and
  6. Mindfulness of the nine stages of a decaying corpse (navasivathika pabba)

 1.2 Contemplation of feelings (vedananupassana)

Contemplation of feelings just as feelings with no sense of mine, “I” or myself, which are of three types;

  1. Pleasant feelings (sukha vedana)
  2. Unpleasant feelings (dukkha vedana) and
  3. Neither pleasant nor unpleasant feelings (adukkhamasukha vedana

With each of the three types of feeling, the meditator is aware whether the feeling is associated with sense pleasures (samisa vedana) or not associated with sense pleasures (niramisa vedana).

1.3 Contemplation of the mind (cittanupassana)

Contemplation of the mind just as mind and just as a phenomenon with no sense of mine, I or myself is to be done by observing the following:

  1. A mind with greed or without greed;
  2. A mind with anger or without anger;
  3. A mind with delusion or without delusion;
  4. A lazy mind;
  5. A distracted mind;
  6. A developed or undeveloped mind;
  7. An inferior or superior mind;
  8. A concentrated or un-concentrated mind; and
  9. A mind free from defilements or not free from defilements.

1.4 Contemplation of mind objects (dhammanupassana)

Contemplation of mind objects just as mind objects with no sense of mine, I or myself is done on the following mind objects:

  1. Five mental hindrances or nivarana pabba: sense desire (kamachanda), ill will (vyapada), sloth and torpor (thina-middha), restlessness and worry (uddhaccakukkucca)and sceptical doubt (vicikiccha)
  2. The aggregates or khanda pabba—the five aggregates of clinging: the corporeal body (rupa), feeling (vedana), perception (sanna), mental formations (sankhara), and consciousness (vinnana)
  3. Six internal and external sense bases or ayatana pabba: the eye and the visible objects, the ear and the sounds, the nose and the odours, the tongue and the tastes, the body and the tactile objects, and the mind and the mind objects
  4. Seven factors of enlightenment or bojjhanga pabba: the factor of mindfulness (sati sambojjhanaga), the factor of investigation of phenomena (dhammavicaya sambojjhanga), the factor of effort (viriya sambojjhanga), the factor of rapture (piti sambojjhanga), the factor of tranquility (passaddhi sambojjhanga), the factor of concentration (samadhi sambojjha), and the factor of equanimity (upekkha sambojjhanga) and
  5. The Four Noble Truths or sacca pabbathe Noble Truth of suffering (dukkha sacca), the Noble Truth of the cause of suffering (samudaya sacca), the Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering (nirodha sacca), and the Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering (magga sacca) (4)

2. Four types of right effort (sammappadana)

  1. Effort to prevent the arising of unarisen unwholesome mental states (samvara padhana)
  2. Effort to abandon unwholesome mental states that have already arisen (pahana padhana)
  3. Effort to cultivate un-arisen wholesome mental states (bhavana padhana) and
  4. Effort to maintain wholesome mental states that have already arisen ( anurakkhana padhana)

The unwholesome mental states that have not arisen yet refer to the five mental hindrances, or pancha nivarana, of sense desire (kamacchanda); ill will (vyapada); sloth and torpor (thina middha); restlessness and remorse (uddaccha kukkuccha); and sceptical doubt (vicikicca). The unwholesome mental states to be abandoned are the thoughts of sensual desire, hatred and cruelty while the wholesome mental states to be cultivated and maintained are the seven factors of enlightenment. 

3. Four bases of mental power (iddhipada)

  1. Desire or will to act (chanda)
  2. Effort or energy (viriya)
  3. Consciousness or mind (citta) and
  4. Investigation or discrimination (vimansa)

“Iddhi” means certain spiritual or mental powers and “pada” means bases. By practising and developing these four mental qualities, it is possible to attain certain super-normal powers such as the ability to walk on water, ability to travel in the air cross-legged, ability to move through the earth, ability to read others’ minds and the ability to remember one’s past lives. However, on the path of liberation they help to develop wholesome mental states and the supra-mundane knowledge pertaining to the eradication of mental defilements in order to attain Nibbana or final liberation. Referring to the significance of these four bases of power in the viraddha sutta of the Samyutta Nikayaanother collection of Buddha’s discourses, Buddha has stated that:

“yesaṃ kesañci, bhikkhave, cattāro iddhipādā viraddhā, viraddho tesaṃ ariyo maggo sammā dukkhakkhayagāmī. Yesaṃ kesañci, bhikkhave, cattāro iddhipādā āraddhā, āraddho tesaṃ ariyo maggo sammā dukkhakkhayagāmī.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ce6-6-ro

Monks, those who have neglected the four bases of spiritual power have neglected the noble path leading to the complete destruction of suffering. Those who have undertaken the four bases for spiritual power have undertaken the noble path leading to the destruction of suffering”.

 4. Five spiritual faculties (pancha indriya)

  1. Faith or conviction (saddha)
  2. Energy or effort (viriya)
  3. Mindfulness (sati)
  4. Concentration (samadhi) and
  5. Wisdom (panna)

Of the two kinds of faith—blind faith (amulika saddha) and investigative faith (akarawathi saddha)—it is the investigative faith that is considered here as a spiritual faculty. Faith is essential for one to develop skillful mental qualities and engage in skillful activities like meditation to achieve spiritual progress. When one attains the first noble stage of Stream Entry, (sotapanna), one will possess unshakable faith in the Triple Gem: Buddha – the Enlightened One; Dhamma – Buddha’s teachings; and Sangha – the community of Buddhist monks and nuns who have either attained final liberation or have entered the path of liberation.

Energy or effort is the persistence in avoiding un-arisen unskillful mental qualities, abandoning arisen unskillful mental qualities, cultivating un-arisen skillful mental qualities and maintaining arisen skillful mental qualities.

Mindfulness is attained by contemplating on the body just as the body, feelings just as feelings, mind just as the mind and mind objects just as mind objects.

In the faculty of concentration, by choosing an appropriate meditation object and focusing attention on that, one develops deep states of concentration called Jhana.

Through wisdom, one realizes the suffering, cause of suffering, cessation of suffering and the path leading to the cessation of suffering (6).

Among the five spiritual faculties, the faculties of faith and wisdom are paired together while effort and concentration are paired together in a reciprocal relationship. There has to be a balance between faith and wisdom as well as between effort and concentration in order to facilitate spiritual progress. The faculty of mindfulness acts as the moderator to ensure that each pair maintains the correct balance without resorting to either extreme, which can adversely affect the spiritual development. If, for example, faith dominates over wisdom, the ability of analysis and investigation will weaken whereas should wisdom dominate over faith it will lead to doubt and uncertainty. Similarly, if effort or energy dominates over concentration it will cause restlessness and agitation whereas when concentration dominates over effort it will cause sloth and torpor.

 5Five spiritual powers (pancha bala)

  1. Faith or conviction (saddha)
  2. Energy or effort (viriya)
  3. Mindfulness (sati)
  4. Concentration (samadhi) and
  5. Wisdom (panna)

As can be seen, the five spiritual faculties and the five spiritual powers are very similar in number and terminology. When the five spiritual faculties are developed and cultivated well they become firm, strong and powerful enough to oppose and control the factors that can oppose the five spiritual faculties. As powers, faith controls doubt, energy controls laziness, mindfulness controls heedlessness, concentration controls distraction and wisdom controls ignorance. When faith becomes a power, it manifests as the four immeasurables, or brahma vihara, namely loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity. When energy and concentration become powers, they lead to deep states of concentration, or Jhana, and when wisdom becomes a power it leads to the insight into the three universal characteristics of impermanence: unsatisfactoriness (anicca); suffering (dukkha); and not self (anatta). Mindfulness becomes a power when one is able to develop mindfulness by contemplating on the body, feelings, mind and the mind objects (7).

6. Seven factors of enlightenment (satta bojjhanga)

  1. Mindfulness (sati)
  2. Investigation of dhammas (dhamma vicaya)
  3. Energy or effort (viriya)
  4. Rapture or joy (piti)
  5. Tranquility (passaddhi)
  6. Concentration (samadhi) and
  7. Equanimity (upekkha)

The Pali term “bojjhanga”, consisting of “bodhi” meaning ‘enlightenment’ and “anga” meaning ‘causative factors’, refers to the seven factors or necessary conditions which, when cultivated by a disciple, lead to awakening or enlightenment through the realization of the four Noble Truths. They have also been described as qualities of a noble person or an enlightened person. Beginning with the first factor of mindfulness, they tend to flow in a progression towards the last factor of equanimity with each factor’s development based on the preceding ones.

Mindfulness, the first factor of enlightenment, means non-judgmental awareness from moment to moment and is also the 7th factor of the Noble Eight-fold Path. It is developed by contemplating on the body, feelings, the mind and the mind objects.

The second factor of investigation refers to the quality of mind that critically discriminates and investigates into the nature of mind and matter or mental and physical phenomena. Through investigation, one gains an analytical knowledge of their true nature consisting of the three universal characteristics of impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and absence of a self. Well-developed mindfulness helps the process of critical investigation into the phenomena as they arise.

The third factor of determined effort, energy, exertion, vigour or diligence is essential throughout the enlightenment process from beginning to end. With determined effort, one acts to prevent the development of mental defilements—sensual desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and remorse, and sceptical doubt—that have not yet arisen. Subsequently, effort is directed to abandon the unwholesome mental states that have already arisen by abandoning thoughts of sensual desire, hatred and cruelty. With determined effort, one also acts to cultivate un-arisen wholesome mental states and to maintain the wholesome mental states that have already arisen. Here, the wholesome mental states are the seven factors of enlightenment. There are three stages of effort required to accomplish a particular task from beginning to completion: the effort required to begin a task (arambha dhatu viriya); sustained effort required to carry on with the task (nikkama dhatu viriya); and the effort required to continue till the completion of the task (parakkama dhatu viriya).

The fourth factor of rapture or joy is the non-sensual (niramisa) happiness and satisfaction felt in the mind as well as the lightness and the waves of bliss felt in the body. Five types or degrees of rapture have been described based on how strong and mature the mental development is: lesser rapture, momentary rapture, overwhelming rapture, uplifting rapture and pervasive rapture (8).

The fifth factor (passaddhi) of calm, serenity, quietness or tranquility naturally follows joy or rapture and leads on to concentration. It is of two types: kaya passaddhi, meaning tranquility of the mental qualities; and citta passaddhi, meaning tranquility of the mind or consciousness. The mental qualities that are quietened in kaya passaddhhi are the aggregates of feeling (vedana); perception (sanna); and the mental formations (sankhara). When tranquility develops, the opposite factors of restlessness and remorse (uddaccha kukkuccha) are controlled.

The sixth factor of concentration, which is calm one-pointedness of the mind focused on a particular internal or external object, follows the factor of tranquility while the other factors of faith, investigation, effort and joy are also conducive to the development of concentration. In concentration meditation (samatha bhavana), the main objective is to develop tranquility and deep states of concentration (Jhana) by focusing attention exclusively on one of 40 meditation objects. There are three levels of concentration that one is able to attain in concentration meditation: preliminary concentration (parikamma samadhi); access concentration (upacara samadhi); and fixed concentration (appana samadhi). As the concentration becomes stronger and deeper, the five mental hindrances of sensual desire ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and remorse, and sceptical doubt are gradually overcome. There has to be a proper balance between the factors of effort and concentration in order to facilitate the development of concentration as an enlightenment factor. There are certain necessary factors that one needs to consider before one begins concentration meditation: moral discipline, a suitable place for meditation, correct effort, determination, and a spiritual friend. The spiritual friend can help the meditator choose the right object for meditation and can also provide guidance and support.

The development of the seventh factor (upekkha) of equanimity or perfect neutrality is facilitated by the preceding six factors and is the mental quality of being non-reactive and neutral with a perfectly balanced mind in the face of experiences such as pleasure and pain. Someone with well-developed equanimity, such as an Arahant, will not react to worldly experiences such as gain and loss, fame and ill repute, praise and blame or pleasure and pain. Equanimity is the last of the four immeasurables (brahma vihara), the others being loving kindness, compassion and sympathetic joy. Equanimity is also a factor associated with Jhana or deep meditative stages in concentration meditation.

7. The Noble Eight-fold Path (ariya atthangika magga)

  1. Right view (samma ditthi)
  2. Right intention (samma sankappa)
  3. Right speech (samma vaca)
  4. Right action (samma kammanta)
  5. Right livelihood (samma ajiva)
  6. Right effort (samma vayama)
  7. Right mindfulness (samma sati) and
  8. Right concentration (samma samadhi)

From a practical standpoint, the eight factors above can be divided into three groups of practice:

  1. Wisdom (panna) consisting of right view and right intention;
  2. Morality(sila) consisting of right speech, right action and right livelihood; and
  3. Concentration (samadhi) consisting of right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration.

The Noble Eight-fold Path is of two kinds: i) The initial mundane path when one begins to purify morality and develop concentration with some degree of insight; and ii) The supra-mundane path that develops with the right view and leads to final enlightenment.

Right view is of two types: mundane right view and supra-mundane right view. Mundane right view is having a correct understanding of the mechanism of volitional actions, or kamma, in which wholesome actions will lead to good results and unwholesome actions will lead to bad results. Supra-mundane right view is the correct understanding of the four Noble Truths of suffering (dukkha), the cause of suffering (samudaya), cessation of suffering (nirodha) and the path leading to the cessation of suffering (magga).

Right intention or right thought evolves as a result of right view and leads to the development of morality (sila). It has three aspects—the intention of renunciation, intention of good will and intention of harmlessness—that are in opposition to the wrong intentions of greed, ill will and harmfulness.

Right speech has four aspects: abstinence from false speech; abstinence from slanderous speech; abstinence from harsh speech; and abstinence from idle chatter.

Right action has three aspects: abstinence from killing any living beings; abstinence from stealing; and abstinence from sexual misconduct.

Right livelihood is the avoidance of five particular trades: i) Trading in living beings; ii) Trading in arms and weapons; iii) Trading in alcohol and other intoxicants; iv) Trading in poisons; and v) Trading in meat.

Right effort provides necessary energy to develop the other seven factors, particularly the factor of right concentration that is necessary to develop right wisdom. It has four aspects: i) Effort to prevent the development of unwholesome mental states that have not arisen; ii) Effort to abandon unwholesome mental states that have arisen; iii) Effort to develop the wholesome mental states that have not arisen; and iv) Effort to maintain the wholesome mental states that have arisen.

Right mindfulness is to be developed through the four foundations of mindfulness: i) contemplation of the body; ii) contemplation of feelings; iii) contemplation of the mind; and iv) contemplation of the mind objects.

When developed properly, the other seven factors of the path from right view to right mindfulness become supportive and requisite conditions for the development of right concentration. Unlike the higher levels of concentration developed in other mundane situations in life, right concentration has to be wholesome and accompanied by the suppression of the mental hindrances. With proper development and progress, right concentration will lead to deep meditative absorption states, or Jhana, and attainment of insight and wisdom (9).

Although 37 requisites of enlightenment have been described in Buddhist teachings, in actuality there are only fourteen different requisites since five requisites seem to appear repeatedly in the seven groups of requisites while the remaining nine qualities appear only once. Examples of this are as follows:

  • The requisite of effort appears nine times as the four types of effort; as effort in the four bases of power; as effort in the five spiritual faculties and powers; as effort in the seven factors of enlightenment; and as right effort in the Noble Eight-fold Path.
  • The requisite of mindfulness appears eight times as the four foundations of mindfulness; as the factor of mindfulness in the five spiritual faculties and powers; as mindfulness in the seven factors of enlightenment; and as the right mindfulness in the Noble Eight-fold Path.
  • The requisite of wisdom appears five times as the factor of investigation in the four bases of mental power; as wisdom in the five spiritual faculties and powers; as investigation of dhammas in seven factors of enlightenment; and as right view in the Noble Eight-fold Path.
  • The requisite of concentration appears four times as concentration in the five spiritual faculties and powers; as concentration in the seven factors of enlightenment; and as the right concentration in the Noble Eight-fold Path.
  • The requisite of faith appears twice in the five spiritual faculties and powers (10).

Pre-requisites to requisites of enlightenment

In the Sambodhi sutta of the Anguttara Nikaya, the Buddha has enumerated the following nine qualities as pre-requisites for the development of the 37 requisites of enlightenment.

“Idhāvuso, bhikkhu kalyāṇamitto hoti kalyāṇasahāyo kalyāṇasampavaṅko. Sambodhipakkhikānaṃ, āvuso, dhammānaṃ ayaṃ paṭhamā upanisā bhāvanāya. ....

tena ca pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā imesu pañcasu dhammesu patiṭṭhāya cattāro dhammā uttari  bhāvetabbā – asubhā bhāvetabbā rāgassa pahānāya, mettā bhāvetabbā byāpādassa pahānāya, ānāpānassati  bhāvetabbā vitakkupacchedāya, aniccasaññā bhāvetabbā asmimānasamugghātāya. Aniccasaññino, bhikkhave, anattasaññā saṇṭhāti. Anattasaññī asmimānasamugghātaṃ pāpuṇāti diṭṭheva dhamme nibbānan.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=di0-7-ro

  1. Having admirable friends, companions and comrades
  2. Virtuous behaviour with restraint observing the training rules
  3. Hearing of talk that is sobering and conducive to understanding. This would include talk on modesty, contentment, value of seclusion and quiet, non-entanglement, effort, morality, concentration, wisdom and knowledge of true vision and release from craving
  4. Effort in abandoning unskillful mental qualities and developing skillful mental qualities
  5. Has developed the wisdom of arising and passing away
  6. Contemplation of the unattractive to abandon lust
  7. Develop good will to abandon ill-will
  8. Practise mindfulness of in and out breathing to remove distractive thinking
  9. Develop the perception of impermanence to uproot the conceit “I am”

These 37 requisites of enlightenment, also known as 37 limbs of awakening described under seven different groups, are believed to be the essence of the entirety of the Buddha’s teaching in relation to the final goal of attaining enlightenment, or the liberation from all suffering, and are recognized as such by both the Mahayana and Theravada traditions of Buddhism. According to Buddhist teachings, the final goal is the attainment of Nibbana that has been described as a supra-mundane state of the highest bliss and eternal happiness devoid of the sufferings of birth, disease, old age, death, grief, lamentation and despair. Nibbana is attained through the four noble stages of Stream Entry (sotapanna), Once Returner (sakadagami), Non-Returner (anagami) and Arahanthood. Any Buddhist disciple aspiring to attain them must invariably develop these 37 factors of enlightenment.”

Thirty-Seven Requisites of Enlightenment: Bodhipakkhiya dhamma in Theravada Buddhism by Dr. Ari Ubeysekara - https://drarisworld.wordpress.com/2016/08/29/thirty-seven-factors-of-enlightenment-bodhipakkhiya-dhamma-in-theravada-buddhism/

 

“Giving alms, living with integrity, meditating, respecting elders, being of service to others, sharing merits, rejoicing in the merits acquired by others, listening to the Dhamma, teaching Dhamma and developing right understanding (lit. straightening one's views), practicing the ten wholesome courses of action, developing the ten perfections (dasa pāramī), practicing the four infinite minds (brahma-vihāras), perfect the four bases for beneficence (cattāri sangaha-vatthāni), become endowed with the Karanīya and Mangala Dhammas, develops the [thirty-seven] Bodhipākkhiya Dhammas which lead us to the four paths & fruits and Nibbāna.”

https://www.dhammatalks.net/Books11/Ariyadhamma_Mahathera-Wholesome_Mental_Qualities.pdf

 

4.5.2. Dhammānudhamma Concept in the Janavasabhasutta (of DN II: 18)

 

Association with noble people (sappurisa–sanseva) and listening to the True–Dhamma (saddhammasavana) are also called the Dhamma of the noble ones (Ariya–Dhamma) which is synonymous with Dhamma. Spoken by them, leads us to become familiar with wise attention (yonisomanasikāra). The practice of yonisomanasikāra results in maintaining a pure mind during all situations that are encountered, with the thirty-seven requisites of enlightenment (Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma) and also including wholesome Dhamma and unwholesome Dhamma (kusala and akusala); for example: It is stated in the Janavasabhasutta (DN II: 18) as the following way:

“Idha bho ekacco saṃsaṭṭho viharati kāmehi saṃsaṭṭho akusalehi dhammehi. So aparena samayena ariyadhammaṃ suṇāti, yoniso manasi karoti, dhammānudhammaṃ paṭipajjati. So ariyadhammassavanaṃ āgamma yonisomanasikāraṃ dhammānudhammappaṭipattiṃ asaṃsaṭṭho viharati kāmehi asaṃsaṭṭho akusalehi dhammehi. Tassa asaṃsaṭṭhassa kāmehi asaṃsaṭṭhassa akusalehi dhammehi uppajjati sukhaṃ, sukhā bhiyyo somanassaṃ. Seyyathāpi, bho, pamudā pāmojjaṃ jāyetha, evameva kho, bho, asaṃsaṭṭhassa kāmehi asaṃsaṭṭhassa akusalehi dhammehi uppajjati sukhaṃ, sukhā bhiyyo somanassaṃ. Ayaṃ kho, bho, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena paṭhamo okāsādhigamo anubuddho sukhassādhigamāya.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab4-57-ro

“First, take someone who lives mixed up with sensual pleasures and unskillful qualities. After some time they hear the teaching of the noble ones, properly attend to how it applies to them, and practice accordingly. They live aloof from sensual pleasures and unskillful qualities. That gives rise to pleasure, and more than pleasure, happiness, like the joy that’s born from gladness. This is the first opportunity for achieving happiness.”

https://suttacentral.net/dn18/en/sujato?layout=plain&reference=none&notes=asterisk&highlight=false&script=latin

“In the first place, Sirs, take a brother who is living in indulgence in the pleasures of sense, in association with bad conditions. He on a certain occasion hears the Aryan Truth, studies it and acquires both the main and the subsidiary doctrines. Having come to this hearing, studying and acquisition, he takes to a life detached from the pleasures of sense, not associated with bad conditions. Under these circumstances he experiences ease and more than ease, happiness. Just as a feeling of complacency may develop into gladness, so does for him, under those circumstances, first ease arise, and, then more than ease, happiness. This, Sirs, is the First Avenue for arriving at Bliss manifested by the Exalted One … Buddha Supreme.”

https://suttacentral.net/dn18/en/tw_rhysdavids

 

Furthermore, this Sutta says ...

“‘puna caparaṃ, bho, idhekacco ‘Idaṃ kusala’nti yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, ‘Idaṃ akusala’nti yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti. ‘Idaṃ sāvajjaṃ idaṃ anavajjaṃ, idaṃ sevitabbaṃ idaṃ na sevitabbaṃ, idaṃ hīnaṃ idaṃ paṇītaṃ, idaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāga’nti yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti. So aparena samayena ariyadhammaṃ suṇāti, yoniso manasi karoti, dhammānudhammaṃ paṭipajjati. So ariyadhammassavanaṃ āgamma yonisomanasikāraṃ dhammānudhammappaṭipattiṃ, ‘Idaṃ kusala’nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘Idaṃ akusala’nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. Idaṃ sāvajjaṃ idaṃ anavajjaṃ, idaṃ sevitabbaṃ idaṃ na sevitabbaṃ, idaṃ hīnaṃ idaṃ paṇītaṃ, idaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāga’nti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. Tassa evaṃ jānato evaṃ passato avijjā pahīyati, vijjā uppajjati. Tassa avijjāvirāgā vijjuppādā uppajjati sukhaṃ, sukhā bhiyyo somanassaṃ. Seyyathāpi, bho, pamudā pāmojjaṃ jāyetha, evameva kho, bho, avijjāvirāgā vijjuppādā uppajjati sukhaṃ, sukhā bhiyyo somanassaṃ. Ayaṃ kho, bho, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena tatiyo okāsādhigamo anubuddho sukhassādhigamāya. Ime kho, bho, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena tayo okāsādhigamā anubuddhā sukhassādhigamāyā”ti.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab4-57-ro

“Next, take someone who doesn’t truly understand what is skillful and what is unskillful, what is blameworthy and what is blameless, what should be cultivated and what should not be cultivated, what is inferior and what is superior, and what is on the side of dark and the side of bright. After some time they hear the teaching of the noble ones, properly attend to how it applies to them, and practice accordingly. They truly understand what is skillful and what is unskillful, and so on. Knowing and seeing like this, ignorance is given up and knowledge arises. That gives rise to pleasure, and more than pleasure, happiness, like the joy that’s born from gladness. This is the third opportunity for achieving happiness.

These are the three opportunities for achieving happiness that have been understood by the Buddha.”

https://suttacentral.net/dn18/en/sujato?layout=plain&reference=none&notes=asterisk&highlight=false&script=latin

 

“‘Taṃ kiṃ maññanti, bhonto devā tāvatiṃsā, yāva supaññattā cime tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro satipaṭṭhānā paññattā kusalassādhigamāya. Katame cattāro? Idha, bho, bhikkhu ajjhattaṃ kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Ajjhattaṃ kāye kāyānupassī viharanto tattha sammā samādhiyati, sammā vippasīdati. So tattha sammā samāhito sammā vippasanno bahiddhā parakāye ñāṇadassanaṃ abhinibbatteti. Ajjhattaṃ vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati…pe… bahiddhā paravedanāsu ñāṇadassanaṃ abhinibbatteti. Ajjhattaṃ citte cittānupassī viharati…pe… bahiddhā paracitte ñāṇadassanaṃ abhinibbatteti. Ajjhattaṃ dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Ajjhattaṃ dhammesu dhammānupassī viharanto tattha sammā samādhiyati, sammā vippasīdati. So tattha sammā samāhito sammā vippasanno bahiddhā paradhammesu ñāṇadassanaṃ abhinibbatteti. Ime kho, bho, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro satipaṭṭhānā paññattā kusalassādhigamāyā”ti.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab4-61-ro

“What do the good gods of the Thirty-Three think about how much the Buddha has clearly described the four kinds of mindfulness meditation for achieving what is skillful? What four?

It’s when a mendicant meditates by observing an aspect of the body internally—keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. As they meditate in this way, they become rightly immersed in that, and rightly serene. Then they give rise to knowledge and vision of other people’s bodies externally.

They meditate observing an aspect of feelings internally … Then they give rise to knowledge and vision of other people’s feelings externally.

They meditate observing an aspect of the mind internally … Then they give rise to knowledge and vision of other people’s minds externally.

They meditate observing an aspect of principles internally—keen, aware, and mindful, rid of desire and aversion for the world. As they meditate in this way, they become rightly immersed in that, and rightly serene. Then they give rise to knowledge and vision of other people’s principles externally.

These are the four kinds of mindfulness meditation that the Buddha has clearly described for achieving what is skillful.”

https://suttacentral.net/dn18/en/sujato?layout=plain&reference=none&notes=asterisk&highlight=false&script=latin

 

“Yāva supaññattā cime tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena satta samādhiparikkhārā sammāsamādhissa paribhāvanāya sammāsamādhissa pāripūriyā. Katame satta? Sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati. Yā kho, bho, imehi sattahaṅgehi cittassa ekaggatā parikkhatā, ayaṃ vuccati, bho, ariyo sammāsamādhi saupaniso itipi saparikkhāro itipi. Sammādiṭṭhissa bho, sammāsaṅkappo pahoti, sammāsaṅkappassa sammāvācā pahoti, sammāvācassa sammākammanto pahoti. Sammākammantassa sammāājīvo pahoti, sammāājīvassa sammāvāyāmo pahoti, sammāvāyāmassa sammāsati pahoti, sammāsatissa sammāsamādhi pahoti, sammāsamādhissa sammāñāṇaṃ pahoti, sammāñāṇassa sammāvimutti pahoti.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab4-63-ro

“… about how much the Buddha has clearly described the seven prerequisites of immersion for the development and fulfillment of right immersion? What seven? Right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness. Unification of mind with these seven factors as prerequisites is called noble right immersion ‘with its vital conditions’ and ‘with its prerequisites’.

 

Right view gives rise to right thought. Right thought gives rise to right speech. Right speech gives rise to right action. Right action gives rise to right livelihood. Right livelihood gives rise to right effort. Right effort gives rise to right mindfulness. Right mindfulness gives rise to right immersion. Right immersion gives rise to right knowledge. Right knowledge gives rise to right freedom.”

https://suttacentral.net/dn18/en/sujato?layout=plain&reference=none&notes=asterisk&highlight=false&script=latin

 

“Yañhi taṃ, bho, sammā vadamāno vadeyya – ‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi apārutā amatassa dvārā’ti idameva taṃ sammā vadamāno vadeyya. Svākkhāto hi, bho, bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko, akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi apārutā amatassa dvārā .

“‘ye hi keci, bho, buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgatā, dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgatā, saṅghe aveccappasādena samannāgatā, ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgatā,

[ye cime opapātikā dhammavinītā sātirekāni catuvīsatisatasahassāni māgadhakā paricārakā abbhatītā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇā. Atthi cevettha sakadāgāmino.”]

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab4-63-ro

“If anything should be rightly described as ‘a teaching that’s well explained by the Buddha, visible in this very life, immediately effective, inviting inspection, relevant, so that sensible people can know it for themselves; and the doors to the deathless are flung open,’ it’s this. For the teaching is well explained by the Buddha—visible in this very life, immediately effective, inviting inspection, relevant, so that sensible people can know it for themselves—and the doors of the deathless are flung open.

Whoever has experiential confidence in the Buddha, the teaching, and the Saṅgha,

[and has the ethical conduct loved by the noble ones; and whoever is spontaneously reborn, and is trained in the teaching; in excess of 2,400,000 such Magadhan devotees have passed away having ended three fetters. They’re stream-enterers, not liable to be reborn in the underworld, bound for awakening. And there are once-returners here, too.”]

https://suttacentral.net/dn18/en/sujato?layout=plain&reference=none&notes=asterisk&highlight=false&script=latin

 

• The practice of loving kindness (mettā) in the presence of objects that can cause anger (kodha).

• Control of lust (rāga) in the presence of the objects of sensual pleasures.

• Being humble in situations where conceit (māna) could arise.

The practice of yoniso-manasikāra leads to the ability to change unwholesome thoughts to wholesome thoughts. What happens by the development of yoniso-manasikāra? Every activity is endowed with the highest quality of practicing according to the dhamma (dhammānudhamma-patipatti). The thoughts, speech and actions are then in keeping with the dhamma.

https://www.dhammatalks.net/Books11/Ariyadhamma_Mahathera-Wholesome_Mental_Qualities.pdf

 

4.5.3. The Dhammānudhamma (Anudhamma) in the Anudhamma Suttas (SN III 39–42)

 

Now, we are going to examine the Anudhamma concept appears in the Anudhammasuttas.

 

1: SN III 42: Catutthaanudhammasutta

“Sāvatthinidānaṃ. “Dhammānudhammappaṭipannassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ayamanudhammo hoti yaṃ rūpe anattānupassī vihareyya, vedanāya… saññāya… saṅkhāresu… viññāṇe anattānupassī vihareyya. Yo rūpe anattānupassī viharanto…pe… rūpaṃ parijānāti, vedanaṃ… saññaṃ… saṅkhāre… viññāṇaṃ parijānāti, so rūpaṃ parijānaṃ, vedanaṃ… saññaṃ… saṅkhāre… viññāṇaṃ parijānaṃ parimuccati rūpamhā, parimuccati vedanāya, parimuccati saññāya, parimuccati saṅkhārehi, parimuccati viññāṇamhā, parimuccati jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi, parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmī”ti.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=cc0-208-ro

“For a monk practicing the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma, what accords with the Dhamma is this: that he keep focused on not-self with regard to form, that he keep focused on not-self with regard to feeling, that he keep focused on not-self with regard to perception, that he keep focused on not-self with regard to fabrications, that he keep focused on not-self with regard to consciousness. As he keeps focusing on not-self with regard to form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness, he comprehends form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness. As he comprehends form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness, he is totally released from form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness. He is totally released from sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, & despairs. He is totally released, I tell you, from suffering & stress.”

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn22/sn22.042.than.html

 

2: SN III 39: Anudhammasutta

“Dhammānudhammappaṭipannassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ayamanudhammo hoti yaṃ rūpe nibbidābahulo vihareyya, vedanāya nibbidābahulo vihareyya, saññā nibbidābahulo vihareyya, saṅkhāresu nibbidābahulo vihareyya, viññāṇe nibbidābahulo vihareyya. Yo rūpe nibbidābahulo viharanto, vedanāya… saññāya… saṅkhāresu nibbidābahulo viharanto, viññāṇe nibbidābahulo viharanto rūpaṃ parijānāti, vedanaṃ… saññaṃ… saṅkhāre… viññāṇaṃ parijānāti, so rūpaṃ parijānaṃ, vedanaṃ… saññaṃ… saṅkhāre… viññāṇaṃ parijānaṃ parimuccati rūpamhā, parimuccati vedanā, parimuccati saññāya, parimuccati saṅkhārehi, parimuccati viññāṇamhā, parimuccati jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi, parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmī”ti.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=cc0-202-ro

“For a monk practicing the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma, what accords with the Dhamma is this: that he keep cultivating disenchantment with regard to form, that he keep cultivating disenchantment with regard to feeling, that he keep cultivating disenchantment with regard to perception, that he keep cultivating disenchantment with regard to fabrications, that he keep cultivating disenchantment with regard to consciousness. As he keeps cultivating disenchantment with regard to form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness, he comprehends form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness. As he comprehends form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness, he is totally released from form... feeling... perception... fabrications... consciousness. He is totally released from sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, & despairs. He is totally released, I tell you, from suffering & stress.”

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn22/sn22.039.than.html

 

4.5.4. The Anudhamma (Dhammānudhamma) Concept Appears in Dhammapada.

 

There is a similar connection on the story of Dhammārāma in Dhammapada. These verses are not distinct to the Mahāparinibbānasutta. They also appear as verses 183–185 of Dhammapada.

 

4.5.5. Interpretation of Dhammapada – Verse 364: Dhammārāmatthera Vatthu

 

Dhammārāmo dhammarato, dhammaṃ anuvicintayaṃ;

Dhammaṃ anussaraṃ bhikkhu, saddhammā na parihāyati.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=eb25-11-ro

“Verse 364: The bhikkhu who abides in the Dhamma, who delights in the Dhamma, who meditates on the Dhamma, and is ever mindful of the Dhamma, does not fall away from the Dhamma of the virtuous1.

1. Saddhamma: the Dhamma of the virtuous; i.e., the thirty-seven Factors of Enlightenment (Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma) and the nine Transcendentals (Lokuttara Dhamma).

The Story of Thera Dhammārāma

While residing at the Jetavana monastery, the Buddha uttered Verse (364) of this book, with reference to Thera Dhammarama.

When it was made known to the disciples that the Buddha would realize Parinibbana in four months' time, most of the puthujjana bhikkhus (i.e., those who had not attained any of the Maggas) felt extremely depressed and were at a loss and did not know what to do. They just stayed close to the Buddha, hardly ever leaving his presence. However, there was a bhikkhu by the name of Dhammarama who kept to himself and did not go near the Buddha. His intention was to strive most ardently to attain arahatship before the passing away of the Buddha. So he strove hard in Insight Meditation Practice. Other bhikkhus, not understanding his attitude and his noble ambition, misunderstood his behaviour.

Those bhikkhus took Dhammarama to the Buddha and said to the Enlightened One, "Venerable Sir! This bhikkhu does not seem to have any affection or regard or reverence for you; he has been staying by himself while all the time other bhikkhus are staying close to Your Venerable presence." When other bhikkhus had said everything they wanted to say, Dhammarama respectfully explained to the Buddha why he had not come to see the Buddha and also reported that he had been striving his utmost in Insight Meditation Practice.

The Buddha was satisfied and was very pleased with the explanation and conduct of Dhammarama and he said, "My son, Dhammarama, you have done very well. A bhikkhu who loves and respects me should act like you. Those who made offerings of flowers, scents and incense to me are not really paying me homage. Only those who practise the Dhamma are the ones who truly pay homage to me."

Then the Buddha spoke in verse as follows:

Verse 364: The bhikkhu who abides in the Dhamma, who delights in the Dhamma, who meditates on the Dhamma, and is ever mindful of the Dhamma, does not fall away from the Dhamma of the virtuous.

At the end of the discourse Thera Dhammarama attained arahatship.”

 https://www.tipitaka.net/tipitaka/dhp/verseload.php?verse=364

 

Dhammapada Verses 183, 184 and 185 – Anandattherapanha Vatthu

“183. Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ, kusalassa upasampadā;

Sacittapariyodapanaṃ, etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ.

184. Khantī paramaṃ tapo titikkhā, nibbānaṃ paramaṃ vadanti buddhā;

Na hi pabbajito parūpaghātī, na samaṇo hoti paraṃ viheṭhayanto.

185. Anūpavādo anūpaghāto, pātimokkhe ca saṃvaro;

Mattaññutā ca bhattasmiṃ, pantañca sayanāsanaṃ;

Adhicitte ca āyogo, etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ.”

 

https://tipitaka.app/?a=eb14-10-ro

“Verse 183: Not to do evil, to cultivate merit, to purify one's mind - this is the Teaching of the Buddhas.

Verse 184: The best moral practice is patience and forbearance; "Nibbana is Supreme", said the Buddhas. A bhikkhu does not harm others; one who harms others is not a bhikkhu.

Verse 185: Not to revile, not to do any harm, to practise restraint according to the Fundamental Instructions for the bhikkhus, to be moderate in taking food, to dwell in a secluded place, to devote oneself to higher concentration - this is the Teaching of the Buddhas.”

https://www.tipitaka.net/tipitaka/dhp/verseload.php?verse=183

 

Dhammapada Verses 19 and 20 – Dvesahayakabhikkhu Vatthu

“19. Bahumpi ce saṃhita bhāsamāno, na takkaro hoti naro pamatto;

Gopova gāvo gaṇayaṃ paresaṃ, na bhāgavā sāmaññassa hoti.

20. Appampi ce saṃhita bhāsamāno, dhammassa hoti anudhammacārī;

Rāgañca dosañca pahāya mohaṃ, sammappajāno suvimuttacitto;

Anupādiyāno idha vā huraṃ vā, sa bhāgavā sāmaññassa hoti.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=eb1-45-ro

“Verse 19: Though he recites much the Sacred Texts (Tipitaka), but is negligent and does not practise according to the Dhamma, like a cowherd who counts the cattle of others, he has no share in the benefits of the life of a bhikkhu (i.e., Magga-phala).

Verse 20: Though he recites only a little of the Sacred Texts (Tipitaka), but practises according to the Dhamma, eradicating passion, ill will and ignorance, clearly comprehending the Dhamma, with his mind freed from moral defilements and no longer clinging to this world or to the next, he shares the benefits of the life of a bhikkhu (i.e., Magga-phala).”

https://www.tipitaka.net/tipitaka/dhp/verseload.php?verse=019

 

4.5.6. Dhammapariyāya

 

4.5.7. Dhammādāsa

 

MPS 2-8 [93.11-20]

“Anacchariyaṃ kho panetaṃ, ānanda, yaṃ manussabhūto kālaṅkareyya. Tasmiṃyeva  kālaṅkate tathāgataṃ upasaṅkamitvā etamatthaṃ pucchissatha, vihesā hesā, ānanda, tathāgatassa. Tasmātihānanda, dhammādāsaṃ*17 nāma dhammapariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byākareyya – ‘Khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto, sotāpannohamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo’ti.”*18

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab2-103-ro

“It is not remarkable, Ānanda, that human beings should die. But Ānanda, if each time a person were to die and you were question the Tathāgata in this manner, it would be wearisome for the Tathagata!

Therefore, Ānanda, I will teach you a Dhamma teaching called the Dhamma Mirror, by which an accomplished noble disciple, if he wishes, could by himself discern of himself, thus:

‘Destroyed is hell for me! Destroyed is the animal birth! Destroyed is the realm of the departed! Destroyed is the plane of misery, the evil destination, the lower realm! I am a streamwinner, not bound for the lower world, destined for awakening, sure of liberation, bound for awakening!’

[And what, Ānanda, is this Dhamma Mirror, by which an accomplished noble disciple, if he wishes, could by himself discern of himself, thus:

‘Destroyed is hell for me! Destroyed is the animal birth for me! Destroyed is the realm of the departed for me! Destroyed is the plane of misery, the evil destination, the lower realm! I am a streamwinner, not bound for the lower world, for awakening, sure of liberation, bound for awakening!’]”

https://scdd.sfo2.cdn.digitaloceanspaces.com/uploads/original/3X/e/c/eca11685a679326eaeb015090dafac48faed4ed1.pdf

 

[Footnotes - *17-18: *17 The Dhamma Mirror (dhamm’ādāsa) is elsewhere called “the limbs of a Streamwinner" (sotāpannassa aṅgāni), the qualities of one who has attained Streamwinning. For a shorter statement on the limbs of a Stream-winner.

*18 Davids [1910:88, 99.14-25]

‘Now there is nothing strange in this, Ānanda, that a human being should die; but that as each one does so you should come to me, and inquire about them in this manner, that is wearisome to me. I will, therefore, teach you a way of truth, called the Mirror of Truth, which if a disciple of the Noble Ones possess He may, if he should so desire, himself predict of himself:- “purgatory is destroyed for me, and rebirth as an animal, or a ghost, or in any place of woe. I am converted; I am no longer liable to be reborn in a state of suffering and am assured of hereafter attaining to the enlightenment [of Arahantship].”]

 

MPSV (Mahāparinibbānasuttavaṇṇanā) on MPS 2.8 [544. 13-16]

“vihesāti tesaṃ tesaṃ ñāṇagatiṃ ñāṇūpapattiṃ ñāṇābhisamparāyaṃ olokentassa kāyakilamathova esa, ānanda, tathāgatassāti dīpeti, cittavihesā pana buddhānaṃ natthi. dhammādāsanti dhammamayaṃ ādāsaṃ. yenāti yena dhammādāsena samannāgato.”*19

https://tipitaka.app/?a=fb2-106-ro

 

MPS 2-9 [93. 21-49]

“Katamo ca so, ānanda, dhammādāso dhammapariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byākareyya …”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab2-104-ro

“And what, Ānanda, is this Dhamma Mirror, by which a noble disciple, if he wishes, could by himself predict of himself, thus:”

“‘Khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto, sotāpannohamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo’ti?”

“Destroyed is hell for me! Destroyed is the animal birth for me! Destroyed is the realm of the departed for me! Destroyed is the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower realm! I am a stream winner, not bound for the lower world, for awakening, assured of attaining awakening!’?”

“Idhānanda, ariyasāvako buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti …”

The Limbs of a Streamwinner. Here, Ānanda, the noble disciple is processed in wise faith*20 in the Buddha thus:

 

[Footnotes - *19-20: *19 Yang-Gyu An [2005: 67.9-15] – 2.3. Commentary on the Mirror of Truth This is indeed troublesome: He explains that this, Ānanda, for the Tathāgata, would be physically tiring, if he looked into the various future states, the various destinations, the various rebirths of each of them. So it is said, “That Ānanda, for the Tathāgata” Buddhas, however, do not get troubled psychologically. The Mirror of Dhamma means the mirror consisting of Dhamma. By which: endowed with that mirror of Dhamma.

*20 “Wise faith," (aveccappasāda). There are two kinds of faith (Saddhā): 1. “Rootless faith" (amūlaka saddhā), baseless or irrational faith, blind faith. (M 2:170); 2. “Faith with a good cause” (ākāravati saddhā), faith founded on seeing (M 1:320,8, 401,23).]

 

“‘Itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ti.”

“So too, is he the Blessed One: for, he is an arhat, the fully self-awakened one, accomplished in wisdom and conduct, well-farer, knower of the universe, peerless guide of tamable persons, teacher of gods and humans, awakened, blessed.”

 

“Dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti …”

 “He is accomplished in wise faith in the Dhamma thus:”

 

“‘Svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ti.”

“Well-taught is the true teaching of the Blessed One, to be self-realized, timeless, for one to ‘come and see,’ leading onward, to be personally known by the wise.”

 

“Saṅghe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti …”

“He is accomplished in ‘wise faith’ in the monks thus:”

 

“‘Suppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ti.”

“Of good conduct is the Blessed One’s holy community of disciples; of upright conduct is the Blessed One’s holy community of disciples; of right conduct is the Blessed One’s holy community of disciples; of proper conduct is the Blessed One’s holy community of disciples. These four pairs of persons, the eight Individuals are this Blessed One’s holy community of disciples: worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy of salutation with the lotus-palms, an incomparable field of merit for the world.”

 

“Ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.”

“He is accomplished with moral virtues dear to the Noble ones, unbroken, untorn, unmixed, spotless, liberating, praised by the wise, untarnished, giving rise to concentration.”

 

“Ayaṃ kho so, ānanda, dhammādāso dhammapariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byākareyya …”

“This, Ānanda, is the Dhamma Mirror, by which an accomplished noble disciple, if he wishes, could by him- self discern of himself, thus:”

 

“‘Khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto, sotāpannohamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo’”ti.”*21

“Destroyed is hell for me! Destroyed is the animal birth for me! Destroyed is the realm of the departed for me! Destroyed is the plane of misery, the bad destination, the lower realm! I am a streamwinner, not bound for the lower world, destined for awakening, sure of liberation, bound for awakening!”

 

MPSV on MPS 2.9 [544. 19-29]

[MPSV 1]         “Khīṇāpāyaduggativinipātoti idaṃ nirayādīnaṃyeva vevacanavasena vuttaṃ. Nirayādayo hi vaḍḍhisaṅkhātato ayato apetattā apāyā. dukkhassa gati paṭisaraṇanti duggati. ye dukkaṭakārino, te ettha vivasā nipatantīti vinipātā.

[MPSV 2]         Aveccappasādenāti buddhaguṇānaṃ yathābhūtato ñātattā acalena accutena pasādena. Upari padadvayepi eseva nayo.

[MPSV 3]         Itipi so bhagavātiādīnaṃ pana vitthāro visuddhimagge vutto.

[MPSV 1]         Ariyakantehīti ariyānaṃ kantehi piyehi manāpehi. Pañca sīlāni hi ariyasāvakānaṃ kantāni honti, bhavantarepi avijahitabbato. Tāni sandhāyetaṃ vuttaṃ. Sabbopi panettha saṃvaro labbhatiyeva.”

https://tipitaka.app/?a=fb2-106-ro

 

[Footnotes - *21 T. W. Rhys Davids [1910:88,99.26-40,100.1-19]: “What then, Ānanda, is this Mirror of Truth? [It is the consciousness that] the disciple of the Arahants is in this world possessed of faith in the Buddha.

Believing the Exalted One to be the Arahant, the Fully–Enlightened One, Wise, Upright, Happy, World knowing, Supreme, the Bridler of men􀊟s wayward hearts, the Teacher of gods and men.

The Exalted and Awakened One. And that he [the disciple] is possessed of faith in the Truth– believing the Truth to have been proclaimed by the Exalted One, of advantage in this world, passing not away, welcoming all, leading to salvation, and to be attained to by the wise, each one for himself. And that he [the disciple] is possessed of faith in the Order-believing the multitude of the disciple of the Exalted one who are walking in the four stages of the noble eightfold path, the righteous, the upright, the just, the Law-abiding- [94] believing this church of the Exalted One to be worthy of honour, of hospitality, of gifts, and of reverence; to be the supreme sowing ground of merit for the world; to be possessed of the virtues beloved by the good, virtues which make men truly free, virtues which are praised by the wise, are untarnished by the desire of future life or by the belief in the efficacy of outward acts, and are conducive to concentration of heart.

This Ānanda, is the way, the Mirror of Truth, which if a disciple of the noble ones possess he may, if he should so disciple, himself: – ‘purgatory is destroyed for me; and rebirth as an animal, or a ghost, or in any place of woe. I am converted; I am no longer liable to be reborn in a state of suffering and am assured of finally attaining to the enlightenment [of Arahantship]’.”

 

*22In the context of TriPiṭaka Literature, the term “Dhamma" encompasses the complex set of meanings and interpretations. In Dāgha Nikāya Aṭṭhakathā, (DA.1.p.205) it is said that “yathānusiṭṭhaṃ paṭipajjamāne catūsu apāyesu apatamāne dhāretīti dhammo.” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=fa2-335-ro) which means Dhamma upholds a person who practices in accordance with the doctrine of Dhamma so that he would not fall into the woeful existence (Apāya). In this case, Dhamma denotes the Noble Path (Ariyamagga) and Nibbāna along with the Noble Fruition (Ariyaphala) as its upmost sense (Paramattha).

In Dı̄gha Nikāya Aṭṭhakathā, (DA. I.p.92) it is said that “Tattha dhammāti guṇe, desanāyaṃ, pariyattiyaṃ, nissatteti evamādīsu dhammasaddo vattati.” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=fa1-320-ro) which means the word “Dhamma” connotes moral virtue (Guṇa), doctrine (Desanā), course of learning (Pariyatti), and non-being (Nissatta). In the case of “dhammo pāpeti suggatiṃ.” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=eh4-95-ro) which means “the moral conduct causes to reach the good existence.” Dhamma refers to Guṇa, in the case of “dhammaṃ vo, bhikkhave, desessāmi …” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=eq4-3-ro) which means “Monks, I will preach doctrine …” Dhamma refers to Desanā, in the case of ““idha, bhikkhu, bhikkhu dhammaṃ pariyāpuṇāti …” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=de7-18-ro) which means “Now monk pursues the course of learning Dhamma, discourse, poem and verse, etc.” Dhamma refers to Pariyatti, in the case of “Tasmiṃ kho pana samaye dhammā honti, khandhā honti, …” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=2a2-140-ro) which means “at that time, phenomena arise, aggregates arise,” Dhamma also refers to Nissatta.

In the context of Pāḷi grammar texts, a wide scope of the grammatical evaluation of the term “Dhamma” can be seen. In Saddanītippakaraṇa, (Saddanı̄ti. II. p. 337) it is said: “pariyattipaccayesu, guṇe nissattatāya ca; Sabhāve ceva paññāyaṃ, puññe paññattiyampi ca. Āpattiyaṃ vikāre ca, paccayuppannakepi ca; Saccasamādhipakati-ñeyyesu yuttiyampi ca; Visaye ceva nibbāne, dhammasaddo pavattati.” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=ud3-494-ro)

The term “Dhamma” refers to the course of learning (Pariyatti), cause (Paccaya), moral value (Guṇa), non-being (Nissattatā), nature (Sabhāva), wisdom (Paññā), merit (Puñña), manifestation (Paññatti), offense (Āpatti), alternation (Vikāra), the effect which arises from cause (Paccauppanna), truth (Sacca), concentration (Samādhi), natural from (Pakati), cognizable thing (Ñāyya), propriety (Yutti), the object of sense (Visaya), and extinction (Nibbāna).

Though the meanings of Dhamma vary in different contexts, the primary sense of Dhamma in TriPiṭaka literature emphasizes the fact that the term “Dhamma” encompasses the fundamental interpretation, viz. the nature, law of nature, act according to the law of nature, and fruit or benefit to be derived from acting in accordance with the law of nature. On the other hand, the term “Dhamma” refers to doctrine (Desanā) particularly in the case of “Dhammapariyāya”.

 

[Footnotes - *22 Yang-Gyu An [2005:51, 67.16-23, 68.1-9]

[MPSV 1] Finished with downfall, bad destination, relapse: This is said simply as synonyms for hell and so forth. Hell, etc., are called downfalls (apāya) because they are devoid (apeta) of access (aya), which is a term for prosperity. They are called bad destination (duggati) because they are called relapses (vinipāta) because helplessly (vi-vasā) malefactors lapse (ni √ pat) into them.

[MPSV 2] With unwavering faith (avecca-ppasādena): With immovable and unfailing faith by understanding the virtues of the Buddha for what they are.

[MPSV 3] The same thing is true of the next two formulae in the text. It is thus that the Blessed One and so on: the extensive exposition on this is in the Visuddhimagga.

[MPSV 4] With things lovable to the Noble: With things lovable, dear, and pleasant to the noble. The five precepts are indeed lovable to the disciples of the Noble One. This is said with reference to them, because they would not be given in the transition from one life to another (bhav’antare). But here every form of restraint is included.]

 

4.5.8. Pariyāya

 

The term “Pariyāya” is derived from the root “I" along with the prefix “Pari.” (Pāli-English Dictionary, p.56.) Literally, it means “to go round.” In the context of TriPiṭaka Literature, the explanation of the term “Pariyāya” is found in detail. In Vinaya Aṭṭhakathā (VA. I. p.103), it is said that “pariyāyasaddo desanā-vāra-kāraṇesu vattati.” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=3a1-138-ro) which means the term “Pariyāya” encompasses discourse (Desanā), turn (Vāra), and cause (Kāraṇa). In the sentence “madhupiṇḍikapariyāyotveva naṃ dhārehī” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=3a1-138-ro), which means “You should understand that it is the discourse of Madhupiṇdika”. Pariyāya refers to Desanā. In the sentence ““kassa nu kho, ānanda, ajja pariyāyo bhikkhuniyo ovadituṃ pariyāyenā”ti?” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=bc4-73-ro) which means “Ānanda, whose turn is it to instruct the ordained nuns?” Pariyāya refers to Vāra. In the sentence “Sādhu, bhante, bhagavā aññaṃ pariyāyaṃ ācikkhatu …” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=1a2-346-ro) which means “Please, Reverend, the Lord is requested to tell another cause …” Pariyāya also refers to Kāraṇa.

In SāratthaT̄ı̄kā, (SāT.. I. p.339.) it furthers the explanation of the term Pariyāyā” in de tail. First, Pairyāya refers to Desanā for the fact that “pariyāyeti desetabbamatthaṃ avagameti bodhetīti pariyāyo, desanā.” which means “It makes the meaning (Attha), which should be taught, to be understood. This is called Pariyāya – Instruction; preaching; a sermon or discourse.” Second, Pariyāya refers to Vāra for the fact that “Pariyāyati aparāparaṃ parivattetīti pariyāyo, vāro.” which means “It repeats successively. This is called “Pariyāya.” Third, Pariyāya refers to Kāraṇa for that fact that “Pariyāyati attano phalaṃ pariggahetvā vattati, tassa vā kāraṇabhāvaṃ gacchatīti pariyāyo” which means “It happens by grasping its own result. This is called Pariyāya”.

[“ayañhi pariyāyasaddo desanāvārakāraṇesu vattatīti ettha pariyāyeti desetabbamatthaṃ avagameti bodhetīti pariyāyo, desanā. Pariyāyati aparāparaṃ parivattetīti pariyāyo, vāro. Pariyāyati attano phalaṃ pariggahetvā vattati, tassa vā kāraṇabhāvaṃ gacchatīti pariyāyo, kāraṇanti evaṃ pariyāyasaddassa desanāvārakāraṇesu pavatti veditabbā.”

(https://tipitaka.app/?a=5a1-499-ro)]

In general, the meaning of Pariyāya can be seen as arrangement, disposition, order, succession, turn, course, way, habit, quality, property, discussion, instruction, method (of teaching), discourse, etc. according to Pāli dictionaries (Abhidhāna). (Pāli-English Dictionary, p.56) Particularly in the case of Dhammapariyāya, the term “Pariyāya” refers to discourse of exposition (Desanā).

 

4.5.9. The Lord Buddha’s Dhammapariyāya

 

The account of Dhammapariyāya is originated from the Buddha’s Dhammadesanā since the Buddha applies this term when he teaches Dhamma by saying that He will expound such and such Dhammpariyāya. (“tasmātihānanda, dhammādāsaṃ nāma dhammapariyāyaṃ desessāmi” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=ab2-103-ro - D.II. p.79). In Sampasādanı̄yasutta, (https://tipitaka.app/?a=ac4-63-ro - D.III. p.96) “tesamimaṃ dhammapariyāyaṃ sutvā tathāgate kaṅkhā vā vimati vā, sā pahīyissatī” The Buddha encourages Sāriputta Thera to teach Dhammapariyāya regularly to monk (Bhikkhu), nun (Bhikkhunı̄), layman (Upāsaka), and laywoman (Upāsikā) who mistrust the Buddha so that their doubt will be cleared after hearing Dhammapariyāya. In Ñātikasutta, “Atthasaṃhito ayaṃ, bhikkhu, dhammapariyāyo ādibrahmacariyako” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=cb0-348-ro - S.I. p.303) “the Buddha instructs a Bhikkhu to learn and memorize Dhammapariyāya as it is beneficial and fundamentals of the noble conduct of life (Brahmacariya). In the same way, King of Deva (Sakka) told Uttara Thera that Dhammapariyāya relies on four types of assembly (Parisā), namely Bhikkhu, Bhikkhunı̄, Upāsaka, and Upāsikā. Therefore, Dhammapariyāya should be learnt and memorized as it is beneficial and fundamentals of Brahmacariyaka. (Uttaravipattisutta - https://tipitaka.app/?a=dh0-89-ro - A.III. p.14)

In accordance with the usage of the Buddha and his disciples, Cariyāpiṭaka-aṭṭhakathā provides the commentary on Dhammpariyāya by explaining that “dhammapariyāyanti dhammadesanaṃ dhammabhūtaṃ vā kāraṇaṃ.” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=jl3-548-ro) which means “Dhammapariyāya denotes the doctrine of Dhamma.” (CaA. p.327.) In Aṭṭhakādinipāta-aṭṭhakathā, (AA.III. p.340.) it is explained that “dhammapariyāyanti saṃsappanassa kāraṇaṃ desanāsaṅkhātaṃ dhammadesanaṃ.” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=ij14-4-ro) which means “Dhammapariyāya refers to the doctrine of Dhamma which is regarded as exposition (Desanā).” In Saṃyuttanikāya Ṭīkā, (ST.II. p.88) it is said that “‘dhammapariyāyanti dhammakāraṇa’nti, pariyattidhammabhūtaṃ visesādhigamassa hetunti attho.” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=mb0-286-ro) which means “Dhamma pariyāya refers to the course of learning Dhamma which is the cause of the attainment of a higher state.” In addition, Saṃyuttanikāya Ṭīkā explains that “dhammo ca so pariyattidhammattā pariyāyo cāti dhammapariyāyo, taṃ dhammapariyāyaṃ.” (https://tipitaka.app/?a=md0-193-ro) which means “Dhammapariyāya refers to Dhamma and its exposition of the theoretical learning of Dhamma (Pariyatti).” (ST.II. p.305) Based on these facts, it can be understood that Dhammapariyāya refers to a particular teaching of the Buddha and it is a part of the doctrine of Dhamma (Dhammadesanā) which represents the entire teachings of the Buddha.

In general, Dhammadesanā can be categorized into two: The brief (Saṅkhitta) and The detailed (Vitthāra). (“saṃkhittena ca vitthārena ca.” - https://tipitaka.app/?a=db1-8-ro - A.I. p.55.) A discourse in which only contents are taught is called Saṅkhitta Dhammadesanā. A discourse in which contents are explained in detail is called Vitthāra Dhammadesanā. In fact, a discourse which is explained in detail with or without contents is called Vitthāra Dhammadesanā. It is said that Saṅkhitta Dhammadesanā is designed for those who possess higher knowledge and Vitthāra Dhammadesanā is designed for those who possess lower knowledge. (https://tipitaka.app/?a=ib1-7-ro - AA.II. p.11.) Apart from the category, Dhammadesanā is boundless. In Upakasutta, (“Tattha aparimāṇā padā aparimāṇā byañjanā aparimāṇā tathāgatassa dhammadesanā – itipidaṃ akusalanti; itipidaṃ akusalaṃ pahātabbanti; itipidaṃ kusalanti; itipidaṃ kusalaṃ bhāvetabbanti.” - https://tipitaka.app/?a=dd18-60-ro - A.I. p.501) the Buddha stated that Dhammadesanā was unlimited when he taught the nature of the unwholesome state (Akusala), the wholesome state (Kusala), the way how to eradicate Akusala, and the way how to cultivate Kusala.

After the demise of the Buddha, members of the Saṃgha arrange the entire Dhammadesanā of the Buddha into three main divisions: The basket of discipline (Vinayapiṭaka), The basket of discourses (Suttapiṭaka) and The basket of higher doctrine (Abhidhammapiṭaka). Vinayapiṭaka is called the doctrine of order (Āṇādesanā) since the Buddha instructs rules of Vinaya under his commands. Suttapiṭaka (Suttantapiṭaka) is called the doctrine of the appellation (Vohāradesanā) since the Buddha teaches discourses of Suttanta with excellence in language. Abhidhammapiṭaka is called the doctrine of ultimate sense (Paramatthadesanā) since the Buddha delivers higher level of Dhamma with excellence in the ultimate truth. When the Buddha instructs monastic rules of code (Vinaya), He is overwhelmed by great compassion (Mahā Karuṇā) for the Saṃgha. Thus, the doctrine of Vinaya (Vinayadesanā) is regarded as the dominance by compassion (Karuṇāppadhānā). Suttantadesanā is regarded as the dominance by compassion and wisdom (Karuṇāpaññāppadhānā) since the Buddha delivers discourses of Dhamma with wisdom (Paññā) by which he can analyze living beings’ inclination (Āsaya), predisposition (Anusaya), disposition (Adhimutti), character (Carina), etc., and Karuṇā toward them. Paññā which can clarify the ultimate sense of phenomena in reality (Parmattha Dhamma) arises in the Buddha when the Buddha expounds the Higher Dhamma. Thus, Abhidhammadesanā is regarded as the dominance by wisdom (Paññāppadhānā). With regard to the delivery of Dhammadesanā, the Buddha gives a simile in Gilāna Sutta (https://tipitaka.app/?a=dc2-16-ro) that there are three types of patient: One patient does not recover from his sickness whether he acquires proper diet, medicine, and care or not. One patient does recover from his sickness whether he acquires all these things or not. One patient recovers from his sickness only if he acquires proper diet and medicine.

 

The Concept in Retrospect (except Dictionaries)

 

# Regarding the following quotation “Practicing with a view to attaining the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma” which appears (should have appeared) in several Suttas (Sutta translation); When considering and summerising all the following quotations in Pali (preceded by English translation in a nutshell):

The former (Dhamma =) is The Nine Supra Mundane (Super-Mundane) (Navalokuttara) Dhamma/States and The latter (Dhamma = Anudhamma =) is Every Right Practice till 'Maturity-Moment' (Gotrabhū-citta), according to The True Doctrine leading to Nibbana [including Dana-Sila-(Samata-Vipassana)Bhavana / Alms-giving-Moral Practice-(Tranquility-Insight)-Meditation, etc.], sometimes Vipassana only though.

 

# The Atthasālinī (Commentary on Dhammasaṅgaṇī) summarizes different meanings of the word Dhamma: The Scriptures (pariyatti); Cause, condition, reason, root-condition (hetu); Virtue, quality (guna); Soulless, 'I'-less (selfless/Not-self/none-self / egoless / person-less), Being-less (animal-less / creature-less) [nissatta]; Lifeless (nijjīva), etc.

"dhammasaddo panāyaṃ pariyattihetuguṇanissattanijjīvatādīsu dissati."

https://tipitaka.app/?a=4a2-9-ro

 

# The practitioners of the Dhamma who follow the Dhamma means They who follow Insight Meditation according to The Noble Doctrine which taught by The Buddha The greatest that leads to Nibbāna the final bliss.

"dhammānudhammapaṭipannāti ariyadhammassa anudhammabhūtaṃ vipassanādhammaṃ paṭipannā."

https://tipitaka.app/?a=fb2-145-ro

 

# There, the practitioner of the Dhamma who follows the Dhamma means One who follows Every Right Practice till One of the four Supermundane paths or Arahatta-magga (the path to Emancipation) as a pre-part(s) of The Nine Supramundane States – All These religious practices can be one-worded as Pubbabhāgapaṭipadā (the former part practice / the previous practice / the preliminary or preparatory practice / the mundane preliminary portion of the path).

"tattha dhammānudhammappaṭipannoti navavidhassa lokuttaradhammassa anudhammaṃ pubbabhāgapaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno. Sāyeva pana paṭipadā anucchavikattā “Sāmīcī”ti vuccati. Taṃ sāmīciṃ paṭipannoti sāmīcippaṭipanno. tameva pubbabhāgapaṭipadāsaṅkhātaṃ anudhammaṃ carati pūretīti anudhammacārī."

https://tipitaka.app/?a=fb2-249-ro

"pubbabhāgapaṭipadāti ca sīlaṃ ācārapaññatti dhutaṅgasamādānaṃ yāva gotrabhuto sammāpaṭipadā veditabbā."

https://tipitaka.app/?a=fb2-249-ro

"paṭipanno hotīti ettha sīlato paṭṭhāya yāva arahattamaggā paṭipannoti veditabbo. dhammānudhammappaṭipannoti lokuttarassa nibbānadhammassa anudhammabhūtaṃ paṭipadaṃ paṭipanno. anudhammabhūtanti anurūpasabhāvabhūtaṃ."

https://tipitaka.app/?a=hb0-128-ro

 

A few examples for different meanings in different contexts.

 

# Considering ‘Dhammassānudhammanti’, in this Sutta, Dhammo means the path to emancipation (arahatta-magga) and Anudhamma means the rest of three (3) supermundane paths (ariya-maggas*) and (the rest of three - 3) supermundane fruits (ariya-phalas), they were obtained successively.

[*"ariya-magga, m. (sa. ārya + mārga), the sublime path (ɔ: sotâpatti-magga .... arahatta-magga), but generally = ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo = The Noble EightFold Path."]

"dhammassānudhammanti imasmiṃ sutte dhammo nāma arahattamaggo, anudhammo nāma heṭṭhimā tayo maggā tīṇi ca sāmaññaphalāni, tāni paṭipāṭiyā paṭilabhīti attho."

https://tipitaka.app/?a=gb4-82-ro

 

# If we take Dhammassa Cānudhamman, here Dhammo means Omniscience, and Anudhamma means Declaration to the public.

"dhammassa cānudhammanti idha sabbaññutaññāṇaṃ dhammo nāma, mahājanassa byākaraṇaṃ anudhammo nāma."

https://tipitaka.app/?a=gb2-3-ro

 

# When we take Dhammassa Cānudhammaṃ Byākarontīti, here Dhammo refers to The speech which was once/already spoken of, and Anudhammo means The listener was restated.

"dhammassa cānudhammaṃ byākarontīti ettha dhammo nāma kathitakathā, anudhammo nāma kathitassa paṭikathanaṃ."

https://tipitaka.app/?a=ic5-16-ro

 

# Sometimes, Dhamma is called to/for Merit - puñña/kusala, Meritorious deed - puñña/kusala, or Kammically wholesome action - puñña/kusala. Sometimes, all/only things/states Conditioned (saṅkhatā dhammā) are called Dhamma.

"dhammoti dānādipuññadhammo."

https://tipitaka.app/?a=jq4-3-ro

"sabbe dhammāti sabbe saṅkhatā dhammā."

 

# Dhamma also carries out the meaning of Maintaining, Bearing, Sustaining, and Keeping up etc.

"... dhāraṇaṭṭhena dhammoti ..."

https://tipitaka.app/?a=me0-67-ro

https://tipitaka.app/?a=nb3-43-ro

https://tipitaka.app/?a=pc1-25-ro

 

Ciraṃ Tiṭṭhatu Saddhammo! – May The True Doctrine Last Forever!"

 

Source:  (Ven. / Dr.) Bhante Randombe Suneetha Thero's Thesis.

"දසබලසේලප්පභවා නිබ්බානමහාසමුද්දපරියන්තා, අට්ඨංග මග්ගසලිලා ජිනවචනනදී චිරං වහතූ!"

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